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University Degree: Criminology
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Why has the United Kingdom adopted CCTV technology with such enthusiasm and how effective is it as a means of crime prevention?
Since the early 90s, the United Kingdom adopted the use of CCTV with great enthusiasm. Nowadays, according to Welsh and Farrington (2002 p.44) ?in Britain, CCTV is the single most heavily funded non-criminal justice crime prevention measure.? The initial introduction of CCTV was not however based on any solid research which concluded that schemes could help to dramatically reduce crime. The only research which was conducted prior to its introduction was conducted on a much smaller scale. For example: Poyner?s independent studies of car parks and buses (1992)
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Does the Police and Evidence Act 1984 (PACE) and its codes of practice successfully safeguard the rights of suspects against the abuse of police powers?
The police may stop and search people to detect certain types of crimes. However, they should stop and search only if they have reasonable grounds that the person is carrying drugs, offensive weapons, or the stolen property, also a tool that could be used to make the offense, for example, when breaking into someone's home. However, police officer can not stop and search a person just because of their age, race, skin color, hair style, manner of dress, or because they made a crime in the past.
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Firstly it is necessary to properly define how the term crisis is employed in this context, and to move away from any suggestion that it may mean the penal system as a whole, is in dire straits and on the verge of collapse. In order to have any factual grounding it is more likely that crisis is meant to be descriptive of a manner of underlying problems impeding the smooth flow of the system. From approaching the subject from this viewpoint, it is possible to present a strong case that the prison system is in a state of crisis.
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For Oakley (1972, p1) women?s invisibility in the academic discipline of criminology renders women?s problems to be insignificant, and thus women suffer not only academically but also in the policies which are generated from academic studies. Heidensohn and Gelsthorpe (2007 in Maguire, Morgan and Reiner p.383) state that feminist thought in the discipline of criminology developed with the emergence of second wave feminism in the 1960s and 1970s and led to female academics looking critically at the invisibility of women within the subject.
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Teenage drug users will often act out, not be able to pay attention in school and eventually drop out. A parents? drug abuse often causes hectic, stress-filled homes that can include child abuse and neglect. This harms the physical, mental and emotional well-being of the child and introduction to this behavior can set the stage for repeated acts in the next generation. Unborn babies exposed to drugs may be born premature, underweight and possibly addicted to the drug(s) that its mother used. This can slow the development and behavior of the child in the future. There are already so many broken homes in America, with children rightfully being taken from their parents for one reason or another and being placed into foster care.
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All these issues might influence accuracy, validity and reliability of victimisation surveys. Introduction Crimes are a worldwide concern that permeate nearly every part of our life and have a huge impact on societies. They can influence people choices regarding work, school and leisure degrading the quality of life. Although controversy exists over whether violent crimes are on decrease or more widespread than in the past it is generally agreed that they form a serious problem that needs to be addressed by government and other officials.
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The study of Criminology helps us to consider and understand why criminals commit these acts in the first place and what it is that drives certain people to become criminals. Criminology helps us understand whether or not people are born criminals, whether they choose to follow this path of their own free will or whether they evolve into criminals as a direct result of those social, cultural and personal factors and circumstances that they are exposed to throughout their personal lives.
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David Gauntlett(1995) looked at the worrying influence of ?media effects?, instead of focusing on how media effects individuals to commit a criminal act, like Banduras? theory, Gauntlett focused on what motivates and causes violent behaviour, he looked at the background that individuals came from and what their goals were (Gauntlett 2001, Cited in Greer 2010). Gauntlett believed to understand violent behaviour it is necessary to understand violent people (Gauntlett 2001, Cited in Greer 2010). In 1994, Hagell and Newburn conducted a study in which there were seventy eight teenage offenders who had some sort of a violent history, and compared
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The origins of the criminological imagination lay with C. Wright Mills and his book The Sociological Imagination.
This new idea provided by Mills, examines and gives an understanding of a person?s biography within history. For Mills this was the key nature of the sociological imagination (Young 2011). However, no individual?s biography couldn?t be taken out of the historical contexts it was in. This demanded the present need to be understood in order to connect with the ways in which the phenomena under scrutiny had been produced and reproduced. Taking Mills idea of the sociological imagination, the biography of individual?s remains important but you must also understand that an individual?s behaviour cannot be detached from their historical and material contexts (Barton, Corteen, Scott, and Whyte 2007).
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Discuss the different academic responses to contemporary criticisms of the old police. How helpful are these discussions in highlighting explanations for the establishment of the Metropolitan Police force in 1829.
These riots made a profound impression on policing, it showed how ineffective our legal system was and that it was in need of reform (George F. E. Rudé 1956: 93-111). The role of the Constables required them to apprehend anyone accused of a crime, and bring them before a justice of the peace. Constables also had a general responsibility to keep the peace, but there was no expectation within society that they should investigate or prosecute crimes. The constables were seen to be corrupt but when policing a small town or village, where you live then it was safe to assume they ultimately knew everyone e.g.
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Critically evaluate the current methods employed in the Sex Offender Treatment Programmes (SOTP). Include in your answer an overview of their theoretical foundations
A sex offence is the ?... commission of acts of a sexual nature against a person without that persons consent? (Hale, C. 2005, Pg 574). There are many different types of sex offenders such as those who offend against adults, against children and those who take the form of sexual murderers. The sex offending itself takes many forms, from the man who indecently exposes himself the man who possesses illegal pornography to the man who offends against his children (Thomas, T.
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However, if their behaviour crosses the limit into illegal behaviour, then the formal system of punishment will get involved for instances, police and courts. Durkheim argued that ?both the basis and form of punishment changes over time. Crimes are often also enforced by social sanctions. What is deviance is learned through our parents, teachers, media and religion. Durkheim (1960) Causes for criminal behaviour are believed to involve both inherited and environmental factors. Genetic causes are linked to chemical imbalances within the brain brought about by gene mutations and which can cause the brain to produce too little serotonin.
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The effects of neglect and physical abuse in children can vary and can have long term effect. Children who have abused and neglected display significant developmental delays ,have poor speech and learning ability ,may lack the ability to interact socially and are prone to accidents due inadequate protection and supervision.[Hanks and Stratton2007] Later effect of neglect can result in criminal and risky behaviour such as substance and alcohol abuse and self-harm[.www action for children .org]In extreme cases abuse and neglect may result in the death of a child like the case of Victoria Climbie .who was an 8 year old
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A victims, ethnicity, sexual orientation, religion, or race can all play a part in hate crimes. The "Office of Justice Programs Fact Sheet" (2011) website As of December 2011, 45 States currently provide statistics for hate crimes that differ in categorization of crimes, and protected groups, including a difference in penalties. However, varying statutes across the 45 states make data collection hard to estimate the presence of hate crimes accurately. What Congress did, was to pass the ?Hate-Crimes and Statistics Act? in 1990, allowing the Justice Department to gather data on hate crimes.
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How does the notion of harm reveal the entangled relationships between social welfare and crime control?
This relationship causes entanglements because there is a fine line between social welfare and crime control policies. Using the notion of harm, mainly discrimination, the following essay will reveal the entanglements between social welfare and crime control. One of the greatest social harms that has plagued the history of man has been discrimination, mainly racism. Only recently have some countries introduced laws to tackle violent displays of prejudice including indecent behavior linked to racism, known as hate crimes. (Clarke,2008, p.51)
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Under the consequentialism framework, Utilitarianism states that actions are to be evaluated solely on their consequences (Mills 2010, 2). Jeremy Bentham, known as one of the first individuals to fully develop the system of utilitarianism, believes that we should tally the consequences of each action we perform and establish whether an action is morally right or wrong on a case by case basis (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2005, 1). This is also known as act-utilitarianism. The second key point of Bentham is that we should tally the results of our actions in accordance to pain and pleasure, which Bentham believed should determine our moral conduct (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2005, 1).
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