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University Degree: Gender Studies

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  1. Music has constantly been used as a medium in the spread of gender stereotypes through misogynistic lyrics, sexism as well as the objectification of women. Despite the active involvement of females in American music since its early commercial years, they

    The development of a patriarch in structuring the economic, social and political systems of America allows the white supremacy to racially and sexually oppress women in a legitimate way at the same time (Adams & Fuller, 2006, p.942). Music has always been used as a vehicle of human expression as society evolves. The Sapphire and Jezebel images which evolve into the concept of "bitch" and "ho" are embedded into the lyrics of music (Adams & Fuller, 2006, p.945). A large proportion of youths listen to the hip hop and the rock genre due to existence of popular artistes like Pitbull, whose song "I know you want me" which peaked the U.S.

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  2. Freud and de Beauvoir on gender difference. Freud (albeit indirectly) and de Beauvoirs works show that it is not so much the biological framework of our bodies as the power of society itself that is inescapable.

    When detailing the development of girls, Freud initially seems to be suggesting that girls are inferior not merely because of their biological makeup but because of society. He tells us to be wary "of underestimating the influence of social customs, which similarly force women into passive situations" (Freud, 144). However, as his argument proceeds, this is a claim that becomes shrouded in ambivalence as Freud's claims seem to leave little room for societal explanation for the development of femininity. For Freud, passivity and aggressivity are the defining traits of each gender.

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  3. Problematic Discourses: Sexual Violence and Women Press Correspondents. First, the pervasiveness of patriarchy within journalism will be identified before assessing its dual implications for newsroom culture and the medias representation of women. This

    This will be followed by a brief explanation and justification of the methods used, before the teasing out of the frames, representations and discourses within the respective articles. To claim the existence of patriarchy within journalism is to open a metaphorical can of worms about whether the perception of male hegemony is merely the result of scholars a priori establishing that 'gender matters' (Steiner 2005, p.42). While there has been a dramatic increase in the number of women securing jobs in journalism, the fact remains however, that white Western men dominate global newsrooms as producers, owners and subjects (Crouteau and Hoynes 1992).

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  4. Consider the medias preoccupation with disciplining the way in which women and men perform gender through a discussion of any of the following themes: size 0; obesity; 6-pack; cosmetic surgery.

    But these examples are nothing compared to the aesthetic world which we have become obsessed with. Magazines, celebrities and television seem to be dictating how we should look - what should we wear, how we should have our hair, what weight should we be aiming for - which is nothing new, but surprisingly more effective. The intention of this essay is to examine the media's preoccupation with weight gain (Obesity) and loss (Size 0) - while being two very different contemporary problems both dealing with body mass - have shocked and changed people (specifically women) the world over.

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  5. Gender Studies

    In the latest WB report (2010) the chart on poverty and inequality revealed that gender inequality (MDG3) and poverty alleviation (MDG 5) are still below the target line. Although, a reduction in poverty was recorded in China and some other parts of Asia but in Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia poverty is still below the target line. In the area of universal primary education (MDG 2) the report stated that target is being met, with over 90 percent of primary age children enrolled with increase among girls; this is said to be a step into shrinking the gender gap in education.

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  6. Changing Gender Roles in HK & USA

    A person's gender role encloses many different elements including the way of clothing, styling etc. and the differences in these roles have always continued over time (Christie-Mizell, 2006). The division of the roles has been, historically, based on males and females but different gender roles have emerged overtime as well. Changing of gender roles has been a quite continuous process. Males and females trying to avoid their personal strengths of being a specific sex have changed. Research followed in Western countries have shown that the females have become lot more vulnerable and hollow in their approach towards their main role of bearing child and work domestically.

    • Word count: 2113
  7. Exploring the Gender Gap(TM): How does a Child(TM)s Gender Role impact their Socialisation Skills?

    These stereotypes that decide how each gender should behave and look are passed on mainly through the influence of the child's parents. These parents will reinforce the child for the 'normal behaviour', stopping them from participating in an activity that doesn't fit their category. These categories and aspects of stereotypes are reinforced by society, in order to make people conform a certain way. Common stereotypes for the male insist on them being tough, unemotional and masculine. They must be interested in typical 'lad' activities, such as football, as well as dressing in a certain way - they are expected to support women and children when they get older.

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    Therefore the apparent issue in contention, would seem to be determinant upon one's sexual identity in relation to what constitutes acceptable parental role models, together with the institutional enforcement of traditional hegemonic norms and values. For gender theorist's homosexual and lesbian sexual identities are entrenched in essentialism (De Cecco and Parker, 1995), for essentialism is the belief that sexuality and/or gender are determined by features of an individual's biology or psychology. Whilst in the opposing corner social constructionists rejected these essentialist theories, on the grounds that the homo/hetero and male/female distinctions are themselves cultural constructs subject to constant changes, and that lesbians and homosexuals were the result of historical, cultural and political milieu (Kitzinger, 1987).

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  9. Austism, the extreme male brain

    Prochaska originated the Transtheoretical model. His father died of alcoholism and depression and he also distrusted psychotherapy. At that time in 1975, there were over 130 different systems of psychotherapy. Dr. Prochaska analysed 18 of them and produced the Transtheoretical model. He conducted numerous case studies to produce processes of change and stages of change. (Prochaska & DiClemente 1983; Prochaska et al. 1992; Prochaska & Velicer 1997) The Stages of Change One of the key element of the Transtheoretical model is the stages of change.

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  10. How has AIDS focused the issue of identity for gay males in film?

    While dim-sighted film historian Vito Russo, author of The Celluloid Closet (Harper & Row Publishers, New York, 1981), would have you believe that "Hollywood has packed the screen with limp-wristed victims, suicides, sad-sacks, bitchy queens, psychos, hairdressers, fey fashion designers, perverts and sex maniacs, stereotypes who all have nothing to do with real gay people"1 anyone who understands film history would appreciate and recognise the various stereotypes tenderly portrayed by Franklin Pangborn, Edward Everett Horton, Sidney Greenstreet, Peter Lorre and even Mercedes McCambridge or for even more positive representation of 'real' homosexuals one could look to Montgomery Clift in Red River (Howard Hawks 1948)

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  11. Masculinity in Crisis

    Masculinity has now come to signify an adoption of a certain form of gender and sexual identity in a post modern society. Claims of a crisis of masculinity can affect different men in varying ways in today's contemporary society; one has to questions whether such assumptions are based solely on men's experiences as a group of social actors, in responses the structural changes occurring within social institutions or whether such notions of a crisis relates to the predicament that men find themselves in a more personal levels, are men experiencing a "crisis from without, or a crisis from within" (Edwards, 2006: 4).

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  12. Language and Sexism

    It follows that any such bias in language has direct implications for equal opportunities and treatment. This is not to say that Mills' view is that of all women. The dominant ideology of the English language, held by both males and females, is that male and maleness are the norm. As example we can consider the riddle, 'A doctor and his son were both in a car accident. The father was killed, and the son was rushed to the hospital, where he needed an emergency operation to save his life. The surgeon examined the boy before the operation and said, "I can't operate on this child.

    • Word count: 2011
  13. Gender differences in education

    The National Curriculum The National Curriculum was introduced in 1988 by the Conservative Government as part of the Education Reform Act. The National Curriculum is a blueprint used by schools to ensure that teaching standards are universally consistent. The National Curriculum had three underlying principles, one of them being entitlement and equality. Entitlement and equality is to provide and ensure that every child between the ages of three and sixteen can be taught the contents of the National Curriculum and also ensure that every pupil experiences the different types of study that are included in the National Curriculum.

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  14. How might the relationship between depression and gender have been exaggerated?

    When looking into the state of the populations mental health it is clear that men considerably out-weigh women in almost every other social deviance, i.e. alcoholism, drug misuse, aggression and even suicide; so if this is the case then the fact that women seem to suffer from depression more than men is very intriguing. One of the main explanations for this occurrence comes from the biological differences between men and women; women have to deal with premenstrual tension, post-partum depression, menopause and some go as far as to say oral contraceptives can lead to depressive feelings3.

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  15. Gender Roles

    John Muncie provided details of the initial major reforms in his book entitled 'Understanding the Family' the author referred to the reforms as the Education Act (1944) which made secondary education compulsory. The Family Allowance Act (1945) which saw the introduction of universal benefits for families with two or more dependants. Further reforms he referred to were the National Health Service Act (1946) which reorganised the health provision to provide a free and universal service, the National Insurance Act (1946)

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  16. the image of woman and man in advertisement

    Is there more violence against women as a result of these images? Does the objectification of gender in advertising have an adverse affect on society? Are women being exploited? Are we just looking at peoples bodies and not their minds? Ad strategies often switch from traditional to modern and back. For instance, during the eighties of 20th Century, advertisers have put forward ads that showed men "fussing over what dinner they should prepare for their dates", while Marketing News of the nineties headlined: "Forget the sensitive men!"

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  17. Gender and Biology. The basic assumptions about human gender, sexual identity and sexual re-assignment, or what makes one male or female, are now being evaluated because of David Reimer. Although David was not intersexed, medical professionals took it up

    The variation in genital ambiguity in these patients creates an interesting debate concerning the infant's gender identity. The unique feature about 5-ARD individuals is the extreme virilization that takes place during puberty. Like the average male, during puberty they experience surges of testosterone that are responsible for the production of sperm and male secondary sex characteristic; however, it is unknown in a 5-ARD individual why their body is now receptive to testosterone. As a result of the testosterone, the individuals -testes will descend, phallus will enlarge, voice deepens, will develop limited facial hair, their shoulders will broaden while their hips are narrowed, and will have no breast development (Auleb; 2004, 96).

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  18. Gender discrimination against women in the corporate arena.

    This term was introduced in a 1986 Wall Street Journal article on corporate women by Hymowitz and Schellhardt (1986). The concept refers primarily to barriers faced by women who "attempt, or aspire, to attain senior positions (as well as higher salary levels) in corporations, government, education and nonprofit organizations." (Lockwood, 2004). The glass ceiling is generally indicated by either an under-representation of women in the higher positions of the entity and gender-biased compensation, where men are paid more for the same or similar work and qualifications. In the early 1990s, the Center for Creative Leadership conducted studies on the glass ceiling.

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  19. The Third Gender - Evolutionary explanation for Male Homosexuality

    In my paper I hope to argue that male homosexuality is actually an evolutionary tool for efficiency in sexual selection by bringing together various theories by Buss. What Men Want & Why They Want it Evolutionarily, men have a vested interest in furthering their chances of producing offspring and thereby propagating their genetic information. For this purpose they have two main mating strategies: 1. Short Term Mating Strategy 2. Long Term Mating Strategy Short Term Mating Strategy involves the male to be active in casual sex relationships with many women.

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  20. What can evolutionary psychology tell us about who we find attractive and why?

    This is known as the comparative method. A second way is to examine the degree to mate preferences are common to separate human cultures. If they are the product of evolution then mate preference should be similar across a variety of cultures. Men and women may have evolved ways of detecting characteristics in each other that predict good short-term and long-term mates. Short term mates are selected on the basis of physical characteristics and long term mates are selected on the basis of psychological characteristics .Evolutionary psychology views this decision making process as being unconscious.

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  21. Evaluate the Contribution made by feminist and post-structuralist perspectives to a view of gender as socially constructed. Discuss the implications of this view in relation to one of the following: work, education or the family.

    Often those born with ambiguous sexual organs have been assigned a sex and successfully become what they were assigned to be, even when the assignment may have later been found to be biologically incorrect. This also works in reverse however where assignment has been incorrectly judged and the individual felt they were the wrong sex. There are also cases outside our western society that do not view gender in the same light as us. The North American Indians Berdache takes part in a ritual to decide their gender.

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  22. Newcastle City Council was concerned that high numbers of people under the age of 21 were failing in their tenancies. It commissioned research to examine the effects that different forms of disadvantage had

    * Do you regularly borrow money? * Do you take drugs at present? * Have you been in trouble with the police in the past? One year later, this data, along with records from Newcastle Council, was used to establish which of the respondents had 'succeeded' with their tenancy. A failed tenancy was identified if any of the following factors applied to the individual. * They decided to leave their property within six months of moving in. * They had to leave their property during the period of six months to one year as they had been evicted.

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  23. Should we be concerned about increasing girls' violence and their participation in gangs? The question suggests that violence among girls or involving girls is infact increasing

    The reason for this lack of research could be that the topic is a new phenomenon but is more likely because an overwhelming majority of violence is committed by men. "It is well established that males account for most violence, most homicides, most violent assaults, as well as most forms of violent victimization" (Newburn and Stanko 1994). This lack of research means there is little or no information on female "pathways into violence; the manner in which they are violent; how they use or 'manage' violence; how they deal with potentially violent encounters; and how they desist from using violence."

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  24. 'Research focusing on mixed talk in a variety of social contexts has revealed asymmetrical patterns, with men's greater usage

    Even if variations in speech do result from social differences, do they display male dominance? One of the most important general features of conversation is that speakers take turns at speaking, interjecting at appropriate points and not interrupting at inappropriate times. One person speaking at a time can be a feature of a smooth conversation. Predicting when a speaker has finished and it is an appropriate time for another speaker to begin can be difficult as the gap between speaking turns can sometimes be only a fraction of a second. An interruption can be defined as a speaker interrupting another speaker at a point which would not be the first speaker's last word.

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  25. Why is it important that ethical issues are considered when a research study is being planned? Illustrate your answer with references to the research papers by Punch and Thorne

    Therefore it is important that ethical issues are considered when planning research, particularly in relation to children as they often have little power, and ethical issues can occur at any stage of a research project. Researchers have a duty to build up and refine ethical honesty. Alderson (2004) states that there are three main ethical frameworks. The first relates to respect and justice and that children must always be respected in their own right. The second is a rights based framework and includes the '3 P's' of ensuring that children are provided for, protected and have the right to participation.

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Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • "Discuss the extent to which traditional masculine and feminine roles are changing"

    "In conclusion, I don't think that traditional roles are disappearing as such, but women are changing their priorities. As women are able to get into the labour force and into the highly paid jobs, they are able to provide economic stability for themselves and their children. Increased childcare facilities are enabling women to work and single mothers to cope. However, it seems that after their day at work, women go home and return to their traditional roles by doing the housework and looking after the children. Men's roles do not seemed to have changed much. More men are staying at home and looking after the children during the day yet it seems that this responsibility is handed over to the wife on her return from work."

  • Discuss the nature of women's history and the reason why women are mostly absent from most historical accounts.

    "This theory is highlighted by the debate between the optimists and pessimists. Sociologists of the 1960's and 1970's and many recent historians have been optimistic in the situation for women prior to the industrial revolution, for example Shorter. They believe that the industrial revolution supported the marital family and an increase in equality between men and women. This resulted from educational opportunities, which encouraged and aided women to enter the labour market, increasing their visibility and freedom. However Marxists and Feminists, for example Clark disagree portraying that as a result o capitalism which created cheap labour, women's position in the home was highlighted. It is possible that the two schools will never agree upon a conclusion of the position of women. It remains questionable whether the past could and will ever be rectified. Women's history remains premature. Roger's highlights women's historiography remains ambiguous because the status of women and their domination in the private arena conceals as much as it enlightens. In Thomas suggests that until more precise categories and clearer questions can be formulated the research will remain incomplete. To date women's history is a social history, which seeks to recover the position of invisible women portraying them both as individuals and as part of a group."

  • Philosophy of Sex Essay: 'Explain Mackinnon's critique and critically assess it."

    "In conclusion MacKinnon seems to over rate the effect of pornography on the everyday social structure and the harm that it causes. Her assumption that it sets the standards for all sexual acts and gender roles is over generalised, neglecting the fact many do not view pornography as a realistic portrayal of gender roles or the sexuality of gender. In the end pornography may not be promoting women's rights to equality, but it is hardly as damaging as she claims. Reference: C. MacKinnon, 'Not a Moral Issue' from Feminism Unmodified, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1987. pp. 146-162. Est 1000 words"

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