• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Motivation plays a key role in the learning of skills, because the performer has set himself/herself goals to achieve and that is his/her motivation to succeed. Motivation is also a key essential in a learners preference and selection of activities.

Extracts from this document...


A03 Learning Theories In this assessment objective I will investigate the theories that have been proposed to learning. Motivation plays a key role in the learning of skills, because the performer has set himself/herself goals to achieve and that is his/her motivation to succeed. Motivation is also a key essential in a learner's preference and selection of activities. "internal state or condition that activates behaviour and gives it direction" There are two types of motivation intrinsic and extrinsic, below I am going to explain the both of them: Intrinsic: intrinsic motivation "occurs when an individual participates in an activity for its own sake. For example, a skier may learn to snowboard because success will bring personal satisfaction" Advanced PE for OCR AS According to GCSE Physical Education The Revision Guide Intrinsic Motivation is motivation "that comes from inside you. You play the sport because it is something you enjoy and would want to do well at it, even if there were no prizes or rewards." Extrinsic: extrinsic motivation is motivation that comes from the outside. GCSE Physical Education The Revision Guide states that you might want to do well because there's a big reward for succeeding, money or publicity, for example ???????????? ...read more.


After several 'trials' Pavlov rang the bell without presenting the food and found that the dogs salivated in the same way as if food was being presented. ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? What Is Operant Conditioning? Operant conditioning is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behaviour. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between behaviour and a consequence for that behaviour. "Active behaviour that operates upon the environment to generate consequences" B.F Skinner (1953). In other words, Skinner's theory explained how we gain the range of learned behaviours we show every day. Examples of Operant Conditioning Examples of operant conditioning can be found all around us at work at home at training etc. An example would be a race at training and being praised or rewarded. In these examples, the promise or possibility of rewards causes an increase in behaviour, but operant conditioning can also be used to decrease behaviour. The use of punishment can be used to decrease or prevent unwanted behaviours. For example, a pupil may be told they will lose break privileges if they talk out of turn in class. ...read more.


Necessary conditions for effective modelling: 1. Attention - various factors increase or decrease the amount of attention paid. Includes distinctiveness, affective valence, prevalence, complexity, functional value. One's characteristics (e.g. sensory capacities, arousal level, perceptual set, past reinforcement) affect attention. 2. Retention - remembering what you paid attention to. Includes symbolic coding, mental images, cognitive organization, symbolic rehearsal, motor rehearsal 3. Reproduction - reproducing the image. Including physical capabilities, and self-observation of reproduction. 4. Motivation - having a good reason to imitate. Includes motives such as� past (i.e. traditional behaviourism), promised (imagined incentives) and vicarious (seeing and recalling the reinforced model) Bandura believed in "reciprocal determinism", that is, the world and a person's behaviour cause each other, while behaviourism essentially states that one's environment causes one's behaviour, Bandura, who was studying adolescent aggression, found this too simplistic, and so in addition he suggested that behaviour causes environment as well. Later, Bandura soon considered personality as an interaction between three components: the environment, behaviour, and one's psychological processes (one's ability to entertain images in minds and language). "Social learning theory has sometimes been called a bridge between behaviourist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses attention, memory, and motivation. The theory is related to Vygotsky's Social Development Theory and Lave's Situated Learning, which also emphasize the importance of social learning." http://www.learning-theories.com/social-learning-theory-bandura.html ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill essays

  1. Personality and Motivation in Sport

    nervous before important competitions - Perform intricate skills well - Enjoy sports with more restricted movements - Perform better at low levels of arousal And extroverts tend to: - Prefer team sports - Prefer a high level of excitement - Get bored in training - Enjoy important competitions - Get

  2. My Training Programme.

    I found my left arm harder than my right arm Two lengths arm pulls alternating arms every four pulls (with pull buoy) Works arms together, to improve their pulling strength Yes- my overall time for both arms increased and I benefited from alternating arms Also right for my level of fitness.

  1. Critically analyse your own performance in your chosen sport using suitable notational methods. Include ...

    Areas selected for further development: * Don't get carried away when the bowling was poor. TARGETS * Make a fifty, and make sure I don't get carried away when the bowling isn't great. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS I should have gone on to make a big score today as the bowling was

  2. Personal Exercise Programme (PEP).

    to the sport for which the athlete is training. In the case of my training programme it is sport specific as I am focussing on upper body power rather than lower body power. 'I' stands for individual difference. This means that a programme has to set with the needs and abilities of the athlete in mind.

  1. Free essay

    A2 PE Factors Affecting Performance - Anxiety / Arousal

    Bandura, 1977). Somatic anxiety, on the other hand, is believed to effect performance only if the extent of the somatic response is so large that the athlete becomes excessively concerned and distracted with their perceived physiological state (e.g. Martens et al., 1990).

  2. The role of feedback

    Continuous Have no obvious beginning or end. The skill is repeated as a set pattern like cycling. Positive feedback here would encourage the performer to carry on as they are doing the same over and over and it may get boring so a positive remark would keep you motivated.

  1. Self analysis of weaknesses in table tennis - Comparison to elite model 2

    to use the backhand topspin when I'm actually in a gaming situation. This would allow me to be able to recognise using past experiences when the shot has to be played. I can then also train using one table in particular therefore get used to using this table, this would

  2. Learning theories in sport

    The box is made from Perspex which allows those carrying out the experiment to witness. Inside the chamber there is a lever which the animal can press, several lights and a device which releases food pellets. When the level is pressed a pellet would drop into the chamber, after several

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work