• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Axial and Appendicular Skeletons.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Unit Assignment 1 The Axial and Appendicular Skeletons. The axial skeleton consists of the cranium (skill), the vertebral column (spine) and the rib cage; it is the main area of support for the body. The appendicular skeleton consists of the appendages, or the bones of the limbs, together with the girdles that join onto the axial skeleton. Bones in the Axial skeleton: Cranium Sternum Vertebral Column Sacrum Llium Bones in the Appendicular skeleton: Ulna Radius Humerus Clavicle Scapular Phalanges Metacarpals Carpals Pubis Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Tarsals Metatarsals These bones can be put into four bone type groups, there is flat, long, short, irregular and Sesamoid. Long Bones Long bones are cylindrical in shape, and are found in the limbs of the body, examples of long bones are; Femur Tibia Humerus Phalanges (although not great in length, these possess the cylindrical shape and so also are long bones) Long bones primary functions are to act as levers; therefore they are essential in movement, i.e. when running, the psoas, iliacus and rectus femoris muscles pull on the femur to cause flexion of the hip, effectively pulling the leg off the ground. The rest of the quadriceps group (the vasti muscles as well as the rectus femoris) then pull on the tibia causing extension to take place at the knee joint, enabling the lower leg to 'snap' through. ...read more.

Middle

Strong ligaments exist in order to prevent any sideways movement. The Pivot joint - this is also uniaxial, which allows rotation only. For example; the cervical vertebrae where the axis rotates on the atlas. The Ellipsoid joint - this joint is biaxial, allowing movement in two planes. For example; the radio-carpal join of the wrist allows back and forth as well as side to side movement. The Gliding join - this is formed where flat surfaces glide past one another; although mainly biaxial they may permit movement in all directions. For example; in the wrist, where the small carpal bones move against each other. The Saddle joint - this is biaxial and generally occurs where concave and convex surfaces meet. For example: the carpo-metacarpal joint of the thumb. The Ball and Socket joint - this allows the widest range of movement and occurs where a rounded head of a bone fits into a cup-shaped cavity. For example: in the hip and shoulder. Movement patterns occurring in synovial joints Flexion Extension Abduction Adduction Circumduction Rotation Pronation Supination Plantarflextion Dorsiflextion Inversion Eversion Definitions Flexion - this occurs when the angle between the articulating bones is decreased, flexion occurs in the median plane about the horizontal axis. A muscle that causes flexion is known as a flexor. Example: by raising the lower arm up to touch the shoulder, the angle between the radius and the humerus at the elbow has decreased, flexion of the elbow has occurred. ...read more.

Conclusion

Pivot joint is found in the distal joints of the phalanges. Ellipsoid joint is found in the metacarpophalangeal joint of the fingers. Gliding joint is found between the clavicle and the sternum. Saddle joint is found in the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb. Ball and socket joint found in the hip. In this picture the player is being lifted by two lifters in a rugby lineout, the rugby players are using many bones in this movement, and many movement types, they are using flexion and extension in the whole move of the life, as they go from a low crocheted flexed position, up into a tall extension, and so does the player being lifted, as they extend as high as possible to reach the ball in the air and gain and advantage over the opposite team. In this photo the player has kicked a ball, he use's many joints to do this, there is the gliding joint in the wrist, the pivot joint in the neck, the ball and socket joint in the hip, the saddle joint in the fingers, and the hinge joint in the knee. The hip and the knee are allowing most of the movement in this kick, by using flexion and extension in the run up, and then full extension in the arms and the legs for the kick, which puts a lot of strain on the knee, but by its detailed joint type, it is able to take the strain of kicking without causing damage. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology essays

  1. Skeletal System and Joints

    small groove called the fovea capitis femoris This joint is held together with tendons to connect the bones and tendons around the skeletal muscles. Because of its wide range of movement it should be easily dislocated for example receiving a bad tackle to the inside thigh of your leg in

  2. Physiology Within Sport

    * Nerve gases used in chemical warfare All of these affect the neuromuscular system by causing a breakdown of acetylcholine after the nerve impulse has been transmitted to the muscle. If an individual suffered from any of these disorders, carrying out any form of steady state exercise would be physically

  1. Sprained ankle rehabilitation

    your tip toes and a third being standing with your toes and ball of your foot on a raised platform with your heel hanging of the edge of this platform lower than the rest of the foot. Each of these should be held for around 20 seconds and then a

  2. Movement within the Body and the Cardiovascular System

    Afterwards the ventricle completely relaxes another impulse is started and the cycle begins again. If this synchronisation of the contractions is disrupted it will result in a heart attack. An uncoordinated contraction is known as a fibrillation. Atrioventricular Node The Atrioventricular Node (AV node)

  1. Information on the Physiology of Exercise

    The Lactic acid system breaks down the glycogen that is stored in our muscles to provide energy until there is enough oxygen supplied for the aerobic system to take over. The lactic acid system does not last long but it also leaves behind, in the muscles lactic acid, hence the name.

  2. A level Project, Personal Exercise Program on Netball.

    The performer occasionally switched between feet as the dominant foot which could have also resulted in the umpire calling up footwork offences. Compared to my performer, this shows the level of skill the performer has and therefore identifies the lack of progression and development of the sport.

  1. Muscles and Joints.

    They enable the muscle to exert a pulling action. The Arm The arm has three parts the upper, shoulder arm and the lower arm or (fore arm). The upper arm consists of the humerus. This is very long. The forearm consists of ulna, radius, carpals, phalanges and metacarpals.

  2. The effects of Rheumatoid Arthritis on joints.

    In Rheumatoid arthritis cases the 'click' never comes and within a short space of time other joints join in the game. Steroids and anti-inflammatory drugs and a regime of treatments can be offered. However, in another 5%, the disease gets progressively worst and can lead to severe disability.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work