• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Axial and Appendicular Skeletons.

Extracts from this document...


Unit Assignment 1 The Axial and Appendicular Skeletons. The axial skeleton consists of the cranium (skill), the vertebral column (spine) and the rib cage; it is the main area of support for the body. The appendicular skeleton consists of the appendages, or the bones of the limbs, together with the girdles that join onto the axial skeleton. Bones in the Axial skeleton: Cranium Sternum Vertebral Column Sacrum Llium Bones in the Appendicular skeleton: Ulna Radius Humerus Clavicle Scapular Phalanges Metacarpals Carpals Pubis Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Tarsals Metatarsals These bones can be put into four bone type groups, there is flat, long, short, irregular and Sesamoid. Long Bones Long bones are cylindrical in shape, and are found in the limbs of the body, examples of long bones are; Femur Tibia Humerus Phalanges (although not great in length, these possess the cylindrical shape and so also are long bones) Long bones primary functions are to act as levers; therefore they are essential in movement, i.e. when running, the psoas, iliacus and rectus femoris muscles pull on the femur to cause flexion of the hip, effectively pulling the leg off the ground. The rest of the quadriceps group (the vasti muscles as well as the rectus femoris) then pull on the tibia causing extension to take place at the knee joint, enabling the lower leg to 'snap' through. ...read more.


Strong ligaments exist in order to prevent any sideways movement. The Pivot joint - this is also uniaxial, which allows rotation only. For example; the cervical vertebrae where the axis rotates on the atlas. The Ellipsoid joint - this joint is biaxial, allowing movement in two planes. For example; the radio-carpal join of the wrist allows back and forth as well as side to side movement. The Gliding join - this is formed where flat surfaces glide past one another; although mainly biaxial they may permit movement in all directions. For example; in the wrist, where the small carpal bones move against each other. The Saddle joint - this is biaxial and generally occurs where concave and convex surfaces meet. For example: the carpo-metacarpal joint of the thumb. The Ball and Socket joint - this allows the widest range of movement and occurs where a rounded head of a bone fits into a cup-shaped cavity. For example: in the hip and shoulder. Movement patterns occurring in synovial joints Flexion Extension Abduction Adduction Circumduction Rotation Pronation Supination Plantarflextion Dorsiflextion Inversion Eversion Definitions Flexion - this occurs when the angle between the articulating bones is decreased, flexion occurs in the median plane about the horizontal axis. A muscle that causes flexion is known as a flexor. Example: by raising the lower arm up to touch the shoulder, the angle between the radius and the humerus at the elbow has decreased, flexion of the elbow has occurred. ...read more.


Pivot joint is found in the distal joints of the phalanges. Ellipsoid joint is found in the metacarpophalangeal joint of the fingers. Gliding joint is found between the clavicle and the sternum. Saddle joint is found in the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb. Ball and socket joint found in the hip. In this picture the player is being lifted by two lifters in a rugby lineout, the rugby players are using many bones in this movement, and many movement types, they are using flexion and extension in the whole move of the life, as they go from a low crocheted flexed position, up into a tall extension, and so does the player being lifted, as they extend as high as possible to reach the ball in the air and gain and advantage over the opposite team. In this photo the player has kicked a ball, he use's many joints to do this, there is the gliding joint in the wrist, the pivot joint in the neck, the ball and socket joint in the hip, the saddle joint in the fingers, and the hinge joint in the knee. The hip and the knee are allowing most of the movement in this kick, by using flexion and extension in the run up, and then full extension in the arms and the legs for the kick, which puts a lot of strain on the knee, but by its detailed joint type, it is able to take the strain of kicking without causing damage. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology essays

  1. Skeletal System and Joints

    The body of the femur presents three borders: posterior that corresponds to the linea aspera, lateral and medial. These borders delimite three surfaces: anterior, posteromedial and posterolateral. The femurs shaft is slightly arched in that it is convex at the anterior view and concave behind; where some of its strength comes from a prominent longitudinal ridge called the linea aspera.

  2. Physiology Within Sport

    Kinase PFK PFK Energy Yield 1 2 38 By-products n/a Lactic Acid Water, Carbon Dioxide Duration 10 seconds 3 minutes 20 minutes Intensity HIGH HIGH LOW Sporting Examples 100m sprint 400m hurdles Football Match From reviewing the above table it is evident to see that the Aerobic system produces a

  1. Sprained ankle rehabilitation

    Eccentric contractions can now be used. This is where the muscle contracts while lengthening. An activity, which the person with the sprained ankle should do, is, using the same piece of gym equipment as described for using while doing concentric contractions, they should this time lower their body using the ankle and calf muscles giving them an eccentric contraction.

  2. A level Project, Personal Exercise Program on Netball.

    stretches for example lunges open and close the gate and scraping the wall. Name the Stretch and add a diagram Muscle being stretched Explain how to carry out the stretch State the type of stretching you are doing Lunges Quadriceps, Gluteus.

  1. Movement within the Body and the Cardiovascular System

    o Venules Systemic Circulation This is the portion of the circulatory that carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to the vital organs other organs and the muscles, then carries de-oxygenated blood back to the heart. The blood flows the systemic path like so...

  2. Muscles and Joints.

    The feet are just like hand with tarsals, metatarsals and phalanges. There are only 2 bones in the foreleg these are the fibula and tibia. For running and jumping the thighbone (femur) has to be strong otherwise we would not be able to walk after completing these exercises.

  1. Describe the attachment of muscles and how they produce movement and provide support.

    PIC 3 Thick filaments are made of many myosin molecules. Each myosin molecule contains two myosin heavy chains and two pairs of light chains. Molecular heads make up the light chains. The myosin molecules associate by means of their tails to form the thick chain.

  2. Anatomy For BTEC Sport - bones and muscles.

    to the movement of adduction.2 There are three types of muscle fibres and they are: * Type 1- Slow Oxidative/Slow Twitch * Type 2a - Fast Oxidative Glycolytic/Fast Twitch * Type 2b - Fast Glycolytic/Fast Twitch Type B Fast and Slow twitches In terms of people who participate in athletics:

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work