• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

An Organisational Approach To European Integration – Outline of a Complementary Perspective.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

AN ORGANISATIONAL APPROACH TO EUROPEAN INTEGRATION - OUTLINE OF A COMPLEMENTARY PERSPECTIVE (FORTHCOMING 1) Morten Egeberg Abstract Organisational approach to European integration: focuses on individual actors organisational context � to account: behaviour, interests and identities Intergovernmentalists: usually preclude any profound impact of EU institutions and organisations Institutionalists: claim that EU institutions are able to shape and reshape individual actors' preference and sense of belonging (seen from an organisational perspective: institutionalists often fail to specify (and theorise) the organisational components that institutions may contain. This article: tries to illustrate what an organisational approach has to offer in fields like committee governance and Commission decision making. The need for a complementary perspective: O The intergovernmental argument (Moravscik) has been applied more generally on European integration for a long time. From this perspective: policy-making at the European level is, in general, dominated by national governments whose interests and preferences are shaped and reshaped at the national level. Institutions like the Commission and the Court are managing cooperation among states by reducing transaction costs. Conflicts and cleavages at the European level are organised along (national) territorial lines. � this view has been challenged and criticized by many scholars. According to this critics: institutions at the European level might play a much more significant role in the policy process and they may be able to furnish participants with interests, preferences and identities and even recast those already acquired at the national level. ...read more.

Middle

Organisation = main employer. Secondary structure: usually engage people only on a part-time basis O Organisational demography According to Pfeffer demography refers to the composition, in terms of basic such as age, sex, nationality, education and length of service of the social entity under study � such factors are supposed to impact on decision behaviour (although the strength of potential effects have to depend on characteristics of the organisational structure). Impacts of demographic factors are closely related to socialisation. Socialisation usually means that values, norms and role expectations have become internalised in individuals. New recruits: arrive "pre-packed" with images and attitudes � with increasing length of service in a particular organisation they may however become resocialised. Socialised organisational members identify themselves strongly with a particular organisation and are supposed to advocate its interests "automatically" in the sense that these interests are taken for granted and legitimate without further consideration. O Organisational locus (has not been emphasized very much in the literature) Most organisations are located in particular places and buildings 1st: features of location and physical space segregate private lives and their associated role conceptions and identities from organisational roles and identities 2nd: when multiple organisational memberships are separated in space: cues are evoking different roles and identities 3rd: physical distance within and between government buildings seems to affect contact patterns and co-ordination behaviour. ...read more.

Conclusion

Result: might be that sectoral and functional identities could be evoked simultaneously, although not to the same extent. Commission: divides it work primarily according to sector or function, clearly expressed in the existence of directorates general (DGs). At all levels (including preparatory expert committees) participants are not, as a main rule, expected to represent their country of origin. Neither this organisational setting is however unambiguous. (Commission may be interested in having the views of the Member States presented in order to anticipate more precisely future Council reactions. However role perceptions in Commission committees do differ from those assumed in Council groups. In the latter the government representative role is clearly more prevalent). The Commission and its personnel The role that national interests might play in Commission decision-making is a highly contentious and enduring issue. It has been stated however that even the Commission is permeated by national interests and acts as an important competition between them Most intergovernmentalists would probably tend to see commissioners, their cabinet members, as well as officials in the services, as actors mainly pursuing the interests of their respective national governments. Institutionalists: would most likely emphasise that the Commission like the other institutions furnish individual actors with particular interests and beliefs and that it may even be able to resocialize people so that they gradually come to assume supranational identities. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level European Union section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level European Union essays

  1. The Institutional Consequences of Domestic Politics on Africa's International Relations and Regional Cooperation.

    Kaplan wrote he had to bribe a Togolese immigration official with the equivalent of eighteen dollars before he would agree to put an exit stamp on his passport. This is a common tradition at African borders. The porousness of the West African borders has been attributed to the horizontal population

  2. To what extent were Political and Economic reasons responsible for post 1945 European Integration.

    emergence of opposition parties, which sprang up in most Russian held states. The key state lost was the GDR, when, in 1989, the civic forum took control and ended border controls. This led to a mass migration from east to west Germany, making east Germany no longer viable for the

  1. What does citizenship mean in the European context?

    This, then, is the other, collective side, of the citizenship coin. Demos, provides another way of expressing the link between citizenship and democracy. Democracy does not exist in a vacuum. It is premised on the existence of a polity with members -- the demos -- by whom and for whom democratic discourse with its many variants takes place.

  2. Analyse the claim that nowadays "the president's cabinet performs no useful functions

    This was shown in the Nixon era, as only John Mitchell had direct access to the president, while his colleagues could rarely get past presidential aides. Unlike the British cabinet the US cabinet does not have a doctrine of collective responsibility, although some Presidents such as Eisenhower attempted to establish

  1. Examine the reasons for the different attitudes to European integration in Denmark, Finland, Norway ...

    In addition there was an enduring underlying broad scepticism towards becoming part of the 'union' once more.3 Table 1 The Nordic referendums on membership in the EC/EU Country Date Type Yes% Turnout Norway 25 Sept. 1972 Consultative 46.5 79.2 Denmark 2 Oct.

  2. The Institution of the European Union and Theories.

    Boots benefits of this as it has now access to a variety of candidates with many different attributes. As a result Boots will have a quality workforce who can provide a high level of customer service. This will allow new customers to be attracted and Boots even increasing in size benefiting from economies of scale.

  1. EU functions

    From 2007, in the EU, it is envisaged to be 258 out of 345 votes in order for it to be passed by a qualified majority. In the EU Constitution a system of double majority is proposed. This means that at least 4 countries are needed to block a decision

  2. 'Economic Integration within the European Union: Have MNEs driven the Commission's decision to adopt ...

    IFRS is enforced for all listed companies within the EU and is among 90 countries, including, Australia, Canada, China and Russia, to have adopted the new standards wholly or to have based their national standards heavily upon it (Anon, 2004).

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work