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AS and A Level: Trade Unions

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  1. Running head: Winnipeg 1919

    Canada was also a big supplier of ammunition and food to Europe during the war. This created many jobs during the war and even the unskilled and unemployed were able to find employment. Although war proved to be good for Canadian economy, the cost of living in Canada started to increase dramatically but the wages still remained low, inflation stated to occur and many employers were starting to undermine skilled workers and craftsmen. At the same time, Prime Minister Robert Borden passed a legislation that banned labor unions in the country.

    • Word count: 2088
  2. Why did the General Strike of 1926 take place?

    However, this disillusionment of improved working conditions did not last for long. When the war was over the skilled workers returned to these jobs, leaving those who had filled in for them unemployed and disillusioned. It was not only those who had lost their jobs who felt this way, but those that remained in their posts at companies which were handed back to private ownership were disheartened by the deteriorating working conditions, due to denationalisation. When the people of England came to the realization that post-war England would not be quite what they had first thought they were more willing to strike.

    • Word count: 2410
  3. The Gap Inc

    To ensure compliance with its standards, the Gap sends a Gap Field Representative to conduct in-depth interview with a prospective supplier prior to the initiation of a business relationship. The Gap supplier in Salvador, run by Mandarin International, Taiwanese-owned Company that operated apparel assembly plants around the world. The Gap had begun contracting with Mandarin plants in El Salvador in 1992. A worker there was paid approximately 12 cents for assembling a Gap three-quarter sleeves t-shirt or turtle neck, which retailed at about $20 in the United States.

    • Word count: 2579
  4. Employee Relations and Trade Union Recognition Within The Catering Sector.

    Coupled with this are the long shift hours that the job requires with the nightshift from 10pm to 7am being the most unpopular. It is also necessary for employees to have to work split shifts. An example of this can be seen in the hotel business when employees serve morning breakfast. That person will then have time off before having to work once again on the evening shift, serving tea. This sector of industry also has a very high percentage of job turn over.

    • Word count: 2882
  5. This paper explores the history of government, employee and employer associations and their effects and influence on the employment relationship in Australia. It also considers how these stakeholders may influence the relationship in the future.

    Government has four distinctive roles to play in the industrial relations scene. It is the primary rule maker, the primary economic manager, the guardian of public interest and a model employer. As a primary rule maker, Government attempts to establish ground rules under which employer and employees interact (Keenoy and Kelly, 1998). For example they provide the procedural rules that form the structure for settling disputes. The tribunals (both state and federal) developed as a result of these procedural rules, make most of the substantive rules that govern the employment relationship.

    • Word count: 2419
  6. Select any ONE U.K.trade union. Explore their current levels of membership, and services for members and critically examine theoretical analysis for this current position and activity within the Employee Relations literature.

    Through major mergers with the creation of MSF in 1988 and the Amalgamated Engineering and Electrical Union (AEEU) in 1992, Amicus was form in 2002, which included important consolidations such as the Graphical Paper and Media Union (GPMU) (1992) in the printing industry and UNIFI (1999) in the finance sector. The creation of Amicus was not unique as the number of unions affiliated to the TUC declined from 109 in 1980 (representing 12,172,000 members) to 76 in 2000 (representing 6,746,000).

    • Word count: 2621
  7. Is the strike no longer necessary?

    However, strikes have declined greatly since the 1980s. In the 1970s an annual average number of 2.6 million workers were involved in strike action. In the 1980s this reduced to 1.1 million and in the first half of the 1990s the figure fell to 0.24 million. (Keenoy, 1985) It is estimated that strikes have fallen from a national rate of 195 days lost per thousand employees in 1981 to 13 per thousand employees by 1994. (Floyd, 1998) The decline in strikes has been dramatic and they have been transformed from a major to a minor feature of the employment relations scene.

    • Word count: 2873
  8. The Waterfront Crisis

    (WSWS.org 1998). He promised to improve efficiency and the labour market by substantially restructuring industrial relations. At the core of this agenda was the "waterfront reform", involving nothing less than the dismantling of the industrial relations system, based on a centralised system of regulations governing wages and conditions, supervised by the Industrial Relations Commission (IRC). For corporations facing heightened competition at both a global and national level, this system had become completely incongruous increasing the need for daily flexibility in the hire of labour -- constant downsizing, contracting out, the use of part-time and casual labour and flat-rate working to eliminate overtime payments.

    • Word count: 2002
  9. Identify and explain the major issues relative to the unionization process and what organizations do to make it difficult to implement the process relative to unfair practices. Cite sources and examples.

    The signatures of 30 percent or more of the employees in the bargaining unit being sought must support it. These signatures may be on paper. Generally, this designation or ''showing of interest'' contains a statement that the employees want to be represented for collective bargaining purposes by a specific labor organization. Each employee must sign the showing of interest and each employee's signature must be dated. These elections are conducted under laboratory conditions to ensure that the election represents the free choice of the employees.

    • Word count: 2328
  10. Account for the much lower level of strike incidence in Britain in recent years. Are strikes 'withering away' as a feature of British industrial relations?

    For example the number of working days lost per year due to strikes had peaked at 14 million in 1970-1974 before falling below 1 million between 1990 and 1994. During the 1970s, strike numbers fell, but the presence of large disputes kept the levels of worker involvement and days lost very high. The 1980s saw the majority of strikes shift to the public sector. During the 1980s all the main indicators fell, so that by the end of the decade the number of strikes was similar to that in the 1940s though worker involvement and days lost were still higher.

    • Word count: 2536
  11. Describe and analyse the key developments in British industrial relations over the past 20 years. How do you account for these changes?

    Throughout the 1970s Britain had been subjected to a series of damaging strikes and terrific inflation. There are several identifiable aspects of Thatcherism that set about to deal with these problems. The Tories 1979 manifesto pledged to encourage private enterprise, lower taxes and restore power to the individual. During its years in power, the Thatcher government managed to weaken the stranglehold trade unions held over industry and government in Britain. Thatcher saw this as a very important part of her plans for the country. In 1980, 82, 84 and 88 legislation was introduced affecting the Unions.

    • Word count: 2436
  12. The formation of the International Ladies Garment Worker's Union was somewhat of a miracle.

    The women in the garment industry held meetings in houses where they formed local unions. A local union is the smallest unit of labor organization and represents workers in a particular plant, neighborhood or city. These local unions mapped out their demands and organized strikes. In 1898, members of various cloakmakers unions began calling for the formation of a national union. In 1899, strikes broke out due to the demand for high wages, however, manufacturers forced them back to work without a pay increase.

    • Word count: 2272
  13. It is our intention to examine the interplay between industrial relations (IR) and human resource management (HRM).

    (Mabey & Salaman, 1995) Industrial Relations - Definition "The study of the relationship between the organization and its employees. This covers the full range of collective and individual interactions and communications between employers and employees. And also the processes by which they adjust to the needs and wants of each other"(Clark, 1993, p. 97)) Approaches to industrial relations * Unitary approach This approach refers to mutual cooperation, individual treatment and sharing of common objectives. Work place conflict is seen as a temporary hurdle.

    • Word count: 2416
  14. Growth and Decline in Size and Density of Australian Trade Unionism.

    Not only was this seen in the convict settlement but also with free settlers making use of slaves. As Australia began to find new areas of trade such as agriculture, mining, manufacturing, metal and maritime the relationship between employer and employee remained the same. Job security at the time was high due to the scarcity of unemployed labour and the still infant Australian population. Employees thus would take the gamble with their job security to attempt and obtain more advantages through joining a union (Peetz, 1998 p.118). Unions in the sector of agriculture, maritime and mining were only possible because of the large scale employment of labour.

    • Word count: 2575
  15. Comparison between unitary and pluralist perspectives.

    The management would possibly see this as a threat to their power within the company, as once a trade union was developed management positions would not have complete control. This is why members have no decision making role within the business. Management should be trusted to make acceptable decisions and the members should agree and stand by resolution. The pluralist perspective accepts that their members all have goals, aims and objectives, but they may be all different in relation to the company.

    • Word count: 2991
  16. For my report I will be analysing the recent events of the fire brigade strike. To start off it is important to address the reasons what they are going on strike.

    They are also prepared to take industrial action to further its member's interests. This will be later discussed in the report in more detail. In a business situation the function of the Fire Brigade Union goes in more depth in regards to their function, these include * Obtaining satisfactory pay rates. They are currently in negotiations of increasing the pay of Professional fire fighters from �29,531 to �30,000. This is represented as a 40% pay increase. This is a highly substantial pay rise however the fire fighters have justified their reasons for this.

    • Word count: 2868
  17. Impact of Industrialisation - The purpose of this essay is to describe and discuss the changes, which have taken place in working practices since 1960.

    In their breaks they were expected to clean their machines, however the machines were never stopped but just slowed down for the cleaning. The factory work was exhausting and difficult. The hours of labour were long and they had no holidays, various children also worked, in these poor conditions and for long hours as everyone else. The wages were not high but the advantage was that they would rise. For the first fifty years working practices changed very strongly, although there were laws passed to project workers they were difficult to enforce.

    • Word count: 2488

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • To what extent was the end of Fleet Street the result of newspaper industry industrial relations?

    "In conclusion, 1989 marked the end of Fleet Street as the dominant newspaper production centre as this was when the last newspaper rolled off the printing press in Fleet Street. To a large extent this was caused by newspaper industry industrial relations between printing unions and the newspaper management. Although, it was not the only factor. The break from Fleet Street, in part to break the power of the printing unions and the economic problems they caused, would not have been possible without technological developments, a change in the political environment, the other economic benefits breaking from Fleet Street would create, and Murdoch proving that a move away from Fleet Street would be successful. But it was the economic pressures the printing unions put in newspaper owners that were the dominant factors persuading owners to move away from Fleet Street."

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