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GCSE: Germany 1918-1939
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Young people were under a lot of pressure to join and took part in evening and week-end activities where they were indoctrinated in Nazi ideas. There Were different branches and levels for boys and girls. The education system was also successfully controlled by the Nazis. Textbooks were changed to conform to Nazi ideas. School subjects were used for the purposes of indoctrination e.g.
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The Law for the Encouragement of Marriage also provided financial incentives for couples to have children. Newly married couples could apply for a 1000 mark loan, which was worth half ay ear's earnings. The amount they had to pay back decreased with each child they had. if they had four children they did not pay back any of the loan. Women and families also benefitted from the People's Welfare Organisation set up in 1933 as it provided financial help to poor families.
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Hitler was a very charismatic orator who promised to restore German honour and overthrow Versailles. His use of simple, straightforward, and extremely emotive slogans allowed the general public to understand him and his views for the country. Whilst in jail in 1924 Hitler developed the Fuhrer principle establishing that Germany needed one clear leader to lead it to prosperity, this appealed to the German population as they were dissatisfied with the failing democracy and large amount of parties constantly in dispute in the Reichstag. Hitler targeted all classes in German society. He earned the support of the farmers by saying that their blood and soil was the bedrock of Germany.
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This is further reinforced by the fact that the words translated in Source A actually mean German Liberation, which is right under the eagle trying to reach to the sun. The word liberation is linked to freedom and breaking free of chains, which is linked to Hitler’s idea of ignoring the Treaty of Versailles and being able to make Germany great again, like how it was before the woeful defeat in WW1. Additionally, during 1909, Bernhard von Bülow gave a famous speech were he spoke about Germany’s rightful place in the sun, and many German citizens loved that speech so
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Films such as ?I accuse? were made and shown to everyone to make the German people familiar with Nazi ideas such as killings of handicapped people to support the rest of the country. This indoctrination helped the Nazi?s win the support of the German people. 1. Explain why some Germans opposed Nazi rule? [7 marks] German Christians opposed Nazi rule because they believed Christianity could not accept such racist views. People such as Paul Schneider preached the words of God and spread anti-Nazi messages, Schneider was sent to a concentration camp but secretly sent messages tot the Church warning them no to compromise with the Nazi?s because he believed they were not to be trusted.
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Explain why the Reichstag Fire was important to Hitler? [7 marks] The Reichstag fire was important to Hitler because it enabled him to get rid of the communist opposition party. The fire happened in 1934 and a Dutch communist (Van der Lubbe) was found nearby after the fire, as the people were scared and hoping nothing like this would happen again it was easy for Hitler to convince President Hindenburg to pass the emergency decree which frightened many communists because it meant their houses could be searched and they could be arrested at any time and Van der Lubbe was arrested.
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Was the improvement in party finances the most important change that took place within the Nazi party in the years 1924-1929? (16 marks)
They shared a hatred of communism and hoped Hitler would limit the power of trade unions. The Nazi?s received donations from giants of German industry, such as Thyssen, Krupp, and Bosch. This extra income helped Hitler expand the SA and they had 400,000 members by 1930. Altogether, the party finances played a huge part in the change within the Nazi Party in the years 1924-1929. On the other hand, propaganda was another important change.
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This led Hitler to turn the full force of the police state against Christians. One-third of Germany?s Christians were Catholic. This caused more problems because Catholics owed their first allegiance to the Pope rather than Hitler. In addition, they had their own schools which taught different values from the Nazi state schools. At first, Hitler tried to reach an agreement with the Catholic Church, and in July 1933 he reached a concordat with the Pope. Hitler agreed to confirm the freedom of worship for Catholics and not to interfere with Catholic schools in Germany; and the Roman Catholic Church agreed that its Priests would not interfere in politics, and that it would instruct German bishops to swear loyalty to the National Socialist regime.
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Some crises were to do with money, and some crises were due to the instability of the Weimar Republic. Because the Treaty of Versailles asked for £6600 million in reparations, the government soon was very short on money, especially with the money from industry being highly limited due to the passive resistance in the Ruhr, as well as having to pay the government workers. The government then printed more money, which they didn't have. This led to the value of money nosediving, so much so, that a cup of coffee could go work from 5000 marks in price to 8000 marks in the space of 15 minutes.
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Failed when socialist groups (e.g. trade unions) organized a general strike against the putsch. Again, the government was shown to be weak. Assassination of Walter Rathenau (Foreign Minister), 1922. * French occupation of the Ruhr and its effects, 1923. Why did the Germans fall behind with reparations payments? Non-payment in 1922. French and Belgian troops entered Ruhr, Jan 1923. Seizure of goods by France to pay for reparations. German response of ?passive resistance?. French occupation and policing of Ruhr. Violent clashes between French troops and German workers ? some killed on both sides. Government organized printing a money to pay the workers.
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Hitler than set up the DAF, which had a key role to ensure the workers served the best interest of the Nazi regime. The DAF also controlled the power of the employer. Even through the workers lost their rights to act collectively against their employers, but DAF established the minimum working standards should be, which prevented strikes to be happening. This links to the Nazis policy toward unemployment. Similarly to Nazi policy to towards workers Hitler set up another programme to tackle the issue of unemployment because majority of unemployed people were communist supporters.
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politicians who signed the Treaty of Versailles, whom they referred to as the ?November criminals? This links to what happened as a result of Germany?s inability to pay these reparations, which was the occupation of the Ruhr, and the Weimar Government was unpopular because of how they responded to this issue.
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Stresemann fixed this issue by scrapping the worthless Reichsmark and introducing the Rentenmark. This links to another way in Stresemann fixed the German economy, and this is through the introduction of the Dawes Plan and the Young Plan?, through a series of negotiations with the major banks of the USA, as the source states ?The Dawes Plan of 1924 and US Loans encouraged economic recovery.
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This anti-semitic feeling is seen in the way that the ?SA organised a boycott of Jewish shops?, and that ?local councils had banned Jews from public places?, showing how anti-semitic feeling starting to become political. This links to how anti-semitism became even more political and structured, on a national scale, through the founding of the Nuremberg laws, as the source states ?Jews were denied citizenship through the Nuremberg laws?.
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The Strength through Joy resulted in many to benefit from the Nazi?s as it removed many social barriers between the high and low classes and also meant the working class could afford high priced expenses which they could not afford before. Some historians also believe that all Germans benefited under the Nazi rule as Hitler increased employment. One way he increased employment is through the construction of the 70000 km autobahn, hospitals and many more buildings which created work for 80,000 men.
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The SS was originally created as a private bodyguard for Hitler and other important or influential Nazi leaders. It however did not stay this way and the SS grew from 500 men to 50,000 strict Aryans. Physical standards were very strict. They replaced the SA?s brown uniforms with black ones, to distinguish themselves as a separate organisation. They became the main means of terrorising the German population into obedience. They were fiercely loyal to Hitler, and swore oaths that gave Hitler ultimate control. They remained loyal to the Nazi Party, and played a large role in getting rid of Rohm, leader of the SA.
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In addition, another condition of the Treaty of Versailles was that 12% of Germany?s land was given over to the victors. A large proportion of this land was industrial, one of the main areas being the Saar Coalfields; which caused Germany a great loss in areas naturally rich in raw materials, generating a huge loss in income. As well as the reduction in terms of industry, the confiscation of territory caused a massive reduction in the earning population. This not only meant less workers but also less tax payers; and while the obvious solution would have been to raise taxes to make up for the shortfall in income, the government decided to print additional money instead.
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Even for those few people whose salary kept pace with inflation, it was hard to buy the goods. They needed so much money to buy what they needed that they would physically struggle to transport the money to the shop. In some cases of hyperinflation, people had to transport money in wheelbarrows because they needed so many notes for even small items. An example of this was in Germany 1923, where a single loaf of bread eventually cost 200 billion marks. Another result of prices rising all the time was that workers had to get paid twice a day to rush out and buy their goods before prices rose even more.
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Between 1830-1835, unprecedented economic growth swept through the German states powered by the newly dominant Prussia. Prior to the construction of the first railroad in 1835, Germany had been an agrarian society that emphasised a class divided between the peasants ( lower class) and nobles ( upper class). This divide had prevented a common thread of nationalism developing between these two vastly different, and enfranchised, sub cultures. However, with the rise of an economic middle class in the 18th and 19th centuries; there was a new pressure on rulers to meet the demands of this new class of citizen.
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