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University Degree: Genetics

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 4
  1. Marked by a teacher

    Evolution vs. Intelligent Design

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    and their harshest criticism. He addressed the concept of natural selection, in which life evolves through random mutations. Many concepts within evolutionary theory have been corroborated by scientific evidence. Scientists have been following DNA's footprints, which have been permanently engraved by concrete genetic research. Therefore, usually don't refute the basic tenets of evolution. There are some scientists and non-academics that do attempt to debunk the theory of evolution by purporting the notion of intelligent design (abbreviation: I.D.). Proponents of this spiritual concept look beyond the material world and assume that divine intervention has rendered the creation of life on earth.

    • Word count: 869
  2. DNA Fragmentation in Sperm Cells

    The DNA in all cells is arranged in the form of a double helix, a structure that looks like a twisted ladder. If the rungs of this ladder break then the DNA will be unable to function properly. Not only that, but a sperm cell with high DNA fragmentation may not show any outwardly sign, i.e., neither its motility nor its morphology may be affected. (1) Thus, although several studies have shown that there is a high correlation between the degree of DNA fragmentation and the probability of normal pregnancy and childbirth, there are still some studies that say that although there is a correlation it is not strong enough to be used as a parameter in clinical practice.

    • Word count: 801
  3. stem cell research

    The three major mammalian stem cells are embryonic stem cells, derived from blastocysts, adult stem cells, which are found in adult tissues, and cord blood stem cells, which are found in the umbilical cord. These stem cells can undergo mitosis under laboratory conditions and transformed into specialized cells. Stem cells are said to have unlimited potency, indicating the capability to differentiate into any mature cell type. Current and Potential therapeutic uses of stem cells: Over the last 30 years bone marrow and more recently umbilical cord blood stem cells have been used to treat cancer patients with conditions such as leukemia.

    • Word count: 578
  4. Uses of DNA profiling with PCR and Electrophoresis

    In this way, DNA profiling can also reveal non paternity. A technique called electrophoresis is used to obtain DNA profiles, relying on sections of our DNA that are known as non-coding DNA (DNA that does not code for a protein). Electrophoresis sorts DNA strands according to length. The electrophoresis "gel" acts as a filter that sorts DNA strands. (1) The gel is created using powdered agarose, buffer, a microwave, a gel mold, and a gel comb to create the wells for the DNA sample.

    • Word count: 464
  5. The DNA Damage Response during DNA Replication

    In this article the way replication checkpoints participate in processing the mechanisms to stabilise, assist and organise the fork restart is shown, according to recent findings. Endogenous and exogenous events There are some locations in DNA called fragile sites, where the replication process slows down. The fork pausing in tRNA genes, for example, is associated with either genomic aberrations or DNA damage through mechanisms like uncoupling between strands or helicase being blocked. In case of the replisome remained associated with the fork, some proteins such as the Rrm3 DNA helicase remove the impediments and then the DNA synthesis is restarted.

    • Word count: 634
  6. therapeutic cloning

    The new tissue or organ would have the sick person's original DNA; the patient would not need to have immunosuppressant drugs for the rest of their life, these drugs are normally used to help the patients after the transplant. Also there will be no danger of organ rejection. The process of therapeutic cloning begins when an individual requires a new tissue or organ; a cell is then extracted from the patient. A woman's ovum is then used in the process; the DNA from the ovum has then been extracted. Once the DNA has been extracted, a pre-embryo has been created.

    • Word count: 814
  7. Human Cloning: Is making people wrong?The ultimate bit of genetic engineering would be cloning people

    Cloning is a sexual reproduction and it produces individuals who are genetically identical to someone who already exists. It's done by removing the DNA from the nucleus of an egg cell taken from the mother and then replacing this genetic material with the DNA taken from one of the father's cells - perhaps a skin cell. Creating complete people like this would lead to even more ethical problems than therapeutic cloning in which scientists create human embryos through cloning and extract stem cells that can transform themselves into other types of cell with the aim of using them to treat illness.

    • Word count: 549
  8. In heart diseases, time only makes a physical injury worse. If starved for oxygen

    In spite of the encouraging results of the experimental surgeries, noone knows how the treatment works. How the stem cells renew the tissue or the side-effects, are unkown. There are many experiments done on this issue: 1)mice who -deliberately caused to- suffer heart attack, cured by transmission of bone marrow rich in stem cells. 2)In Gremany, the hearts of 60 patients, who suffered heart diseases, were transmitted bone marrows by catheters; their hearts pumped more blood, strongly. 3)In Pittsburgh University, 100 patients' hearts pumped more blood after stem cell treatment, without any side-effects. 4)In Equador Republic, 10 patients with were ejected stem cells obtained from the fetus.

    • Word count: 768
  9. Plan of essay - Logical and clear orderIntroductionSection 1 - Success of DNA in police investigationsSection 2 - DNA and its limitations

    What will be the scope of answer? - Arguing the case for the use of DNA in police investigations since the aim is to encourage the use of DNA in police investigations. Possible Hypothesis - The use of DNA evidence is an important and necessary tool to fight crime in the modern world Overall the trend for each paragraph will be POINT QUOTE COMMENT. Section 1 - Success of DNA in police investigations Since all topics in section are linked that is they have similar role to play in the sense that they will support the use of DNA in police investigations means that they will put in section 1.

    • Word count: 570
  10. " To clone, or not to clone that is the question"

    This technique is mostly used to develop food crops that grow faster and more resistant to environmental hazards than regular crops. Secondly we have reproductive cloning which is used to generate a new animal or organism that has the identical DNA of a current or previously existing animal. This goal is achieved through a process called "somatic cell nuclear transfer" (SCNT) where scientists excerpt genetic material out of a healthy nucleus of an adult donor cell and replace it with the DNA of the object which is to be reproduced.

    • Word count: 568
  11. Knitting elements and loop formation

    These are much stronger than the wire type needle and are used much more in industry. Another type of needle is known as the compound needle. This consists of two parts, the needle part, which is the stem and the hook of the needle, and also a tongue part, which is the hook-closing element. This is the most expensive type of knitting needle and costs around �3.

    • Word count: 524
  12. SDS gel electrophoresis and Western blotting.

    breaks up the two and three dimensional structure of the protein by adding a negative charge to all the amino acids straightened out. In denaturing, (SDS PAGE) separations, migration is determined not by intrinsic electrical charge of the polypeptide but by molecular weight between log molecular weight and (RF) distance migrated by the protein/ distance migrated by the dye front. It is usually necessary to reduce disulphide bonds in proteins before they adopt the random coil configuration necessary for separation by size; this is achieved with the addition of 2-mercaptoethanol or dithiothreitol which was carried out in this investigation.

    • Word count: 903
  13. The Emergence of SNPs in Genetic Medicine.

    DNA analysis has become an effective procedure in forensic genetics. Prior to 1985, the methods of analyzing biological samples were limited to only conventional blood group and enzyme analysis in criminal cases (Capelli et al, 2003). These methods were informing but nevertheless only gave surface analysis. The advent of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) changed this phenomena and made DNA analysis an endless scope applicability. Capelli et al states that it allowed forensic experts to address the most inaccessible sources of DNA evidences (such as cigarette butts, fingerprints etc. which are predominant in criminal cases)

    • Word count: 894
  14. The History and Development of DNA.

    A shape began to emerge. Three chains twisted about each other in a way that gave rise to crystallographic repeat every 2.8nm along the helical axis. Franklin's Response to the Crick-Watson 3-Chain Model (1952): Franklin objected to the proposed 3-chain model. She stated that its phosphate groups held together by Mg2+ ions was unlikely considering the Mg2+ ions would be surrounded by tight shells of water molecules. Pauling's 3-helix model: Pauling formulated a structure of 3 intertwined helical polynucleotide chains.

    • Word count: 637
  15. Cloning argument

    This allows us play God and it should not be like this. Death is inevitable for a human being, and as a human being we should know and accept this. Not only should stem cell research be prohibited, but so should the research of trying to clone a human being to live as long as non-cloned human. In an article written by Michael A.

    • Word count: 506
  16. Discovery of the Structure of DNA.

    were known * The sugar (S) and phosphate (P) were known to be connected together to form a backbone. The bases (B) were known to be stuck out to the side, attached to the sugar of the backbone by one of their N atoms: * Rosalind Franklin had pointed out that phosphate has negative charges at cellular PHs. Since these charges would repel each other she insisted that the sugar-phosphate backbone was on the outside of the molecule * Hydrogen bonds had been shown to be very important in determining the shapes of proteins and it was expected that they would be important in DNA as well * Rosalind Franklin had taken excellent x-ray diffraction pictures of DNA.

    • Word count: 834
  17. Polymerase Chain Reaction, or PCR Applications.

    Fig.1 Summary of PCR PCR is a very sensitive technique and because of this it is used worldwide in molecular biology. There are many applications of PCR, all of which have aided the current knowledge into DNA sequencing and cloning. PCR is frequently used when screening gene libraries after standard cloning experiments. This method can identify and isolate a clone carrying a particular region of the genome from the thousands of similar clones that contribute a gene bank. In this case PCR is known as 'in vitro amplification' as it utilises two oligonucleotide primers that flank the regions of interest.

    • Word count: 868
  18. Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE).

    1,6532125137750 2,80 Bovine albumin 66 1,8195439355420 1,80 The distance of purified protein=3.9 cm Molecular weight of purified protein= -0.1872*3.9 + 2.1632 = 1.43312 Antilog of 1.43312= 101.43312 = 27.11kDa Results and Discussion Polyacrylamide gel: This gel is used as a supporting medium. It is the composition of two substances: acrylamide and bisacrylamide. When these two are combined a porous network is formed. The former determines the average polyacrylamide chain length. The latter determines the extent of the cross linking. The concentration of gel and the pore size is inversely proportional.

    • Word count: 821
  19. Describing how the structure of DNA is suited to its role in Cell Division and Protein Synthesis.

    Structure of DNA A strand of DNA is made up of a double helix. When it is unwound it consists of phosphate, sugar and one of four organic base/nitrogen molecules called nucleotides. The sugar and the phosphate form the two strands along the sides of the helix and the bases are joined by hydrogen bonds that form ties like rungs on a ladder. The role of DNA in Cell Division DNA is found in the cell nucleus, which has a Nuclear Envelope Pore. The role of DNA is to provide instructions for proteins to be produced in the cytoplasm.

    • Word count: 590
  20. "All Human Cloning should be Banned" do you Agree? Sow that you have looked at it through more than one point of view.

    There are a number of arguments to show if human cloning is good or if it is bad, there are two main points. The first - when does life begin? And the second - high risk in producing deformed individuals. At the moment the scientist can not clone a human but they can do 'Therapeutic cloning' which is the creation of human embryos in a lab to extract embryonic stem cells from them, these stem cells can develop into the chosen organ or cell.

    • Word count: 484
  21. AIDS in Our Society - There is a killer among our society.

    AIDS is a lethal condition because HIV destroys the body's immune system, rendering it defenseless against disease-causing organisms (Tamarin, 502). AIDS has spread throughout the world. There seems to be two worldwide patterns in the spread of AIDS, which is not contracted by casual contact. A 1959 blood sample from central Africa contained the first known human infection. Researchers discovered that the common form of AIDS, caused by HIV-1, jumped from chimpanzees to human beings in the region of Gabon in western Africa.

    • Word count: 852
  22. Outline DNA nucleotide structure in terms of sugar (deoxyribose), base and phosphate.

    a ribose pinto sugar, 2. a phosphate group, 3. a nitrogen bade. The sugar can be two possible sugars: 1. Ribose gives RNA with the molecular formula, C5H10O5, 2. Deoxyribose gives DNA with the molecular formula C5H10O4. The phosphate's molecular formula is H3PO4. Building a nucleotide: The nucleotide is usually represented as follows. Topic 2: The Chemistry of Life Sub-topic: 2.4 DNA Structure Page: 2 Since the reactions involves are condensation reactions, the equation becomes phosphate + sugar + organic base = nucleotide + two waters. 2.4.2 1 State the names of the four bases of DNA.

    • Word count: 649
  23. Protein Synthesis

    Transcription In transcription the genetic material of an organism (the DNA) acts as a template on which an mRNA polynucleotides chain is formed. The reaction is necessary for the transfer of information from DNA to protein. It is catalysed by the enzyme RNA polymerase. RNA polymerase binds to the promoter, a specific DNA sequence that indicates when RNA synthesis should begin. After binding to the promoter, the RNA polymerase unwinds one coil of the DNA helix.

    • Word count: 590
  24. Structure of DNA

    She also thought that each helical unit had 2,3 or 4 nucleic acid chains. In 1951/1952 Francis Crick an English physicist and James Watson an American biologist began their work to discover the structure of DNA. They set about finding how many polynucleotide chains were in the DNA molecule. Using X-ray data they decided that DNA was made up of three chains twisted about each other. They also thought that the forces that held the chains together were salt bridges in which cations such as Mg++ held two or more phosphate groups.

    • Word count: 563
  25. Basic progression of AIDS.

    HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is an enveloped, double-stranded RNA virus, containing two identical RNA strands. Each of its 72 surface knobs contains a glycoprotein capable of binding to a CD4 receptor on the surface of certain host cells (e.g., T-helper cells). The "stalk" that supports the knob is a transmembrane glycoprotein which may also play a role in attachment to host cells. RNA is like the construction boss. Cells use RNA to tell enzymes how to build a specific part of a cell.

    • Word count: 750
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"DNA is just another operating system waiting to be hacked."

-Marc Goodman

Just 60 years ago, Watson and Crick described the structure of DNA for the first time. Now, we have a map of the entire human genome, and we're making new discoveries every day. If you've been following the news about genetic markers for cancer and Alzheimer's, or the controversies surrounding stem cells and GMOs, then you've probably noticed that genetic research is rapidly changing the world. If this excites you, and you thrive on hard work and critical thinking, then studying genetics at university level might be a good fit for you.

The degree will entail plenty of lab work, and where there's lab work there are lab reports. If your writing needs a bit of support, come learn to edit your own work with Marked by Teachers' collection of biological science papers. Make the teacher-marked essays a regular study tool, and before long your writing will excel anything you've done before.

Specialising in genetics at the undergraduate level can be a starting point for careers in industry and medicine and for research in fields like genomics and conservation.

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