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University Degree: Genetics

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 4
  1. How hair and fibre aid in the investigation of crime.

    This made the identification of the fibres more difficult; however, figure 1 Top: cotton, bottom: wool 4 properties (such as how they are woven) and laboratory tests enable one to differentiate between them. Figure 1 shows a microscopic view of a transverse section of cotton (top) and wool (bottom). The diagrams show clearly the different structures and appearances between these two fibre types. Wool appears to be rougher on the walls and has a circular transverse section. Cotton has a smoother side with a curved transverse.

    • Word count: 3363
  2. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT

    I also wish to express my grateful to my esteemed faculty Prof.S.K. Jain, Dr M.Z. Abdin, Dr.Fahrat Afrin, Dr. Depsika Pande, Dr. Farha Anjum and Dr. Sandeep Das for their valuable suggestions, support and encouragement. I am highly indebted to Mr.Mukesh Jain for inculcating me all those qualities, which make him so meticulous, and for training my work and me untiring at each and every stage got an appreciable order due to helping hands provided by Mr.Mukesh jain. And he deserves special thanks for helping a great deal in my concluding Experiment.

    • Word count: 5290
  3. Public awareness of Cloning

    Below are diagrams of those successful mammals to be cloned. Diagram 2 Diagram 3 Diagram 4 Dolly, the first cloned Cc, the first cloned Andi, the first cloned Sheep kitten monkey Diagram 5 Dolly and her surrogate mother There had been theories that mice and humans are in common and that both of not clone able, which simply means they cannot be cloned. But after the success of cloning mice and sheep and other species of mammals, there is hope yet for human DNA cloning.

    • Word count: 3668
  4. Blood Factors and the DNA Fingerprint.

    AB child, their A and O to produce an AO child(called A), or their B and O to produce a BO(called B). In paternity cases, studies of family history can often reveal if an individual is AA-receiving an A type from both parents, or an AO-receiving an A from one and an O from the other. But for the practical purpose of receiving or donating blood, it doesn't make a difference and it isn't possible to separate AO and AA from one another in any sort of testing.

    • Word count: 3667
  5. Playing God Will Not Help Us Grow - clonning.

    I will support my argument through the use of: books on ethics, past researches and current events. II. Ethical arguments against cloning "Cloning is the creation of a being from the cell of another that produces a duplicate being with similar characteristics. The news of a human embryo being cloned for stem cell research and the surrounding controversy has prompted my examination of the subject." (Bob Levin, Authors Notes) Much like religion, ethics is an aspect of life that a person is pretty much brought up with, yet there are many ethical matters that a person must learn as they study to become a professional in any given field and especially in the scientific field.

    • Word count: 3443
  6. The Ethics of Human Cloning.

    IVF treatment however, can also require large numbers of human eggs, with as many as 10-15 being harvested at each attempt, given that it may take several procedures to result in a successful pregnancy1. Following on from that is the increased incidence of developmental abnormalities noted in cloned mammals, found in approximately one third of procedures. It has been found however that cloning rhesus monkeys produces no developmental or physiological abnormalities. Developmental abnormality however, occurs in 3% of natural pregnancies (and even more when maternal age is over 40 years).

    • Word count: 3811
  7. Perhaps the most famous part of the Sistine Chapel ceiling is called "The Creation of Man," where God and Adam sail through the clouds with arms outstretched, the tips of their index fingers just barely touching.

    The National Bioethics Advisory Commission is a 15-member advisory panel of legal and medical academics established to counsel the President on biogenetic research, animal husbandry, and biotechnology in general. Following the announcement about the cloning of Dolly the Sheep, the President directed the panel to review the implications of cloning for humans and report to him within 90 days. Shapiro released a written statement to the press after White House spokesman Michael McCurry announced the directive: "It is very important for us to think extremely carefully about what ethical considerations arise when we even consider the idea of cloning human beings," Shapiro need look no further than his own faculty for help.

    • Word count: 3111
  8. Using DNA to Solve Crimes.

    Several years later, another sexual assault was committed. A Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner worked with the victim and was able to obtain biological evidence from the rape. This evidence was analysed, the resulting profile was run against a DNA database, and a match was made to the man's DNA profile. He was apprehended, tried, and sentenced for his second crime. In this hypothetical case, he was also prevented from committing other crimes during the period of his incarceration. DNA evidence is generally linked to DNA offender profiles through DNA databases.

    • Word count: 4404
  9. DNA Fingerprinting: A review of the criticisms of DNA evidence. Is it really the absolute identification evidence?

    Furthermore, the sample cannot produce an accurate profile if it has been subject to degradation. The significance of a match after the profiling process is also an area where lawyers have challenged DNA evidence. There may be unexplained discrepancies between two profiles, or inaccurate databases chosen. The presentation of DNA evidence in the courtroom has been a difficult task, both for the prosecution and the judge to present and for the Jury to understand. It has been argued that the most contentious debate in forensic science involves the use of statistics to estimate the rarity of a given DNA profile4.

    • Word count: 10302
  10. IRES (Internal Ribosomal Entry Site) Identification in Regulation and Gene Expression.

    o Rickettsia prowazekii (epidemic typhus) o Mycobacterium tuberculosis (tuberculosis) * Nematode C. elegans ( ~ 4 x 108) - December 1998 * Drosophila (fruit fly) (2000) * Human genome (rough draft completed 5/00) - 3 x 109 base Bioinformatics is basically recording, annotation, storage, analysis, and searching/retrieval of nucleic acid sequence (genes and RNAs), protein sequence and structural information. The various data bases used to analyse this information woud be explained further. There are different ways to analyse and interpret information. [3] * To determine the genes in the DNA sequences of various organisms present in the Genbank.

    • Word count: 3363
  11. The Integration of DNA Applications in Forensic Science

    The blood-group typing was implemented in crime labs and has remained useful in many crime solving techniques today. Advances in blood typing have concentrated on the different enzymes and proteins associated with the major blood groups because they have the characteristic of being polymorphisms, which means they exist in several forms and variants, so each one of them have subtypes. The early work on blood proteins was performed on enzymes such as Phosphoglucomutase (PGM), Haptoglobin (Hp) and Adenylate Kinase (AK).

    • Word count: 6952
  12. Forensic Science and DNA in Crime Solving

    "is the genetic material found in the body's nucleic cells (those with a nucleus) such as white blood cells, semen, bone, skin, and hair"(Wells). Aside from the usual blood and semen that can be found at a crime scene and tested, DNA can be found on items that most criminals would never even think of. Cigarette butts, cups, beer bottles, envelopes, lipsticks or chap sticks, and even tissues can be used to obtain a DNA sample. DNA profiling was first introduced to US criminal court during a rape case in Florida in 1987. Tommy Lee Andrews, a factory worker, was convicted of a series of rapes based on DNA evidence (Wells).

    • Word count: 3145
  13. Gene expression in Aspergillus niger exposed to the lignocellulosic substrate, wheat straw

    Second generation biofuels have utilised biomass in the production of bioethanol. However, conversion of biomass to fermentable sugars faces many challenges due to the complexity of lignocellulose as a substrate. Filamentous fungi are exploited commercially for their saprophytic activity and their ability to release cell wall degrading enzymes and have also been used in bioethanol production. Enzymes, such as cellulases from Trichoderma reesei, are part of the breakdown of biomass however, very little is still known about the physiological response of fungi to lignocellulose.

    • Word count: 9085
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"DNA is just another operating system waiting to be hacked."

-Marc Goodman

Just 60 years ago, Watson and Crick described the structure of DNA for the first time. Now, we have a map of the entire human genome, and we're making new discoveries every day. If you've been following the news about genetic markers for cancer and Alzheimer's, or the controversies surrounding stem cells and GMOs, then you've probably noticed that genetic research is rapidly changing the world. If this excites you, and you thrive on hard work and critical thinking, then studying genetics at university level might be a good fit for you.

The degree will entail plenty of lab work, and where there's lab work there are lab reports. If your writing needs a bit of support, come learn to edit your own work with Marked by Teachers' collection of biological science papers. Make the teacher-marked essays a regular study tool, and before long your writing will excel anything you've done before.

Specialising in genetics at the undergraduate level can be a starting point for careers in industry and medicine and for research in fields like genomics and conservation.

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