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University Degree: Genetics
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Protein Synthesis - What's it all about? Firstly, the genetic code of the nucleus is transcribed onto messenger RNA. This RNA moves out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm and becomes attached to a ribosome. Molecules of tRNA carry individual amino acids to the surface of the ribosome. The process translation now occurs, which is when tRNA molecules complementary to the codons in the mRNA strand line up, and enzymes link the amino acids together. When this is done, the individual Trna molecules return to the cytoplasm to pick up another amino acid.
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The purpose of this lab is to predict the molecular and ionic geometries of the species listed using Lewis dot structures, and find if the molecule has resonance structures.
v. Zircon vi. Aragonite vii. Quartz viii. Orthoclase ix. Calcite IV. Procedure: Part A. Wooden Ball Molecular Models 1. Find the total number of valence electrons for the molecule. 2. Select the appropriate molecular modeling equipment from the provided molecular modeling kit, and assemble them in a way to accurately represent the atoms and electron pairs that the molecule consists of; the sticks will be used to represent single bonds between atoms as well as non-bonding electron pairs; and the springs to represent double and triple bonds. 3. Connect the matter representing spheres using the sticks and/or the springs to assemble the skeleton structure of the molecule.
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Therefore it is important to choose some that show the most variation between people. Making a DNA fingerprint There are 4 main steps for making a DNA fingerprint: Extraction � digestion � separation � hybridisation Extraction A sample of tissue containing cells with a nucleus (e.g. blood, a hair root or semen containing a few sperm cells) is taken to the laboratory where DNA is extracted by shaking the sample in a mixture of water-saturated phenol and chloroform. Proteins precipitate out, leaving pure DNA dissolved in the water layer. Some facts: Required amount of tissue: - 0.5 cm� of blood - 0.005 cm� of semen - one hair root Digestion Certain restriction enzymes are added to the DNA to cut it.
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Arguments for Human Cloning: - For the people who agree with human cloning, it is miracle where many couples have difficulties having children, and sometimes it is impossible for couples because they are infertile. So cloning will allow these couples to have children. It will increase the number of embryos transferred and avoid subsequent egg retrieval during in vitro-fertilization (IVF) procedures. ''Smith is licensed to experiment on human stem cells in Britain because his objective is to improve infertility treatment - one of five categories of research for which human embryos up to 14 days old can legally be used.
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Beginning the Human Genome Project Imagine that the human genome, which consists of over 3 billion nucleotide pairs, is the earth. In order to produce a map of its surface, it is essential to break it down into smaller, more manageable areas. To attempt to find a specific location on the earth, without any information on area, landmarks, etc. would be virtually impossible. Thus, the earth is split into continents, countries, and then progressively smaller sub-divisions, ending with a house number on a specific road in a specific part of the country.
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Alpha1 globulin is predominantly alpha1-antitrypsin, an enzyme produced by the lungs and liver. Alpha2 globulin, which includes serum haptoglobin, is a protein that binds hemoglobin to prevent its excretion by the kidneys. Various other alpha globulins are produced because of inflammation, tissue damage, autoimmune disorders, or certain cancers. Beta globulins include low-density substances involved in fat transport (lipoproteins), iron transport (transferring), and blood clotting (plasminogen and complement). Gamma globulins are all antibodies-proteins produced by the immune system in response to infection, allergic reactions, and organ transplants. If serum protein electrophoresis has demonstrated a significant rise at the gamma-globulin level, immunoelectrophoresis is done to identify the specific globulin that is involved.(1)
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of using DNA sequence data for assessing relationships between the major groups of land plants?
Dawson initiated a more important question regarding the "roots" of relationships between plants in 1859. Dawson described several early Devonian plants from Canada and Scotland and interpreted these early fossils as primitive vascular plants showing a degree of morphological simplicity unknown in extant groups. This began to give hints at the evolution of land plants, but the first detailed evidence was provided by Bowers' work on the anatomy of primitive Pteridophytes in Rhynie Chert in 1920. This bridged the diversity between the bryophytes and the Tracheophytes and gave rise to the creation of a monophyletic hypothesis for the evolution of land plants.
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Carriers of Bloom's Syndrome do not manifest symptoms of the disease. Individuals affected with Bloom's Syndrome have inherited two copies of the Bloom's Syndrome gene mutation. Typically they have certain features which don't look phenotypically normal. Most individuals are of an unusually small size at birth but otherwise have a normal degree of maturation. Most have a very short stature after birth, only rarely reaching five feet in height. There is a redness of the skin on the face, mainly the lower eyelids, the bridge of the nose and the adjoining upper cheek area, and the lower lip.
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Transcription In transcription the genetic material of an organism (the DNA) acts as a template on which an mRNA polynucleotides chain is formed. The reaction is necessary for the transfer of information from DNA to protein. It is catalysed by the enzyme RNA polymerase. RNA polymerase binds to the promoter, a specific DNA sequence that indicates when RNA synthesis should begin. After binding to the promoter, the RNA polymerase unwinds one coil of the DNA helix.
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She also thought that each helical unit had 2,3 or 4 nucleic acid chains. In 1951/1952 Francis Crick an English physicist and James Watson an American biologist began their work to discover the structure of DNA. They set about finding how many polynucleotide chains were in the DNA molecule. Using X-ray data they decided that DNA was made up of three chains twisted about each other. They also thought that the forces that held the chains together were salt bridges in which cations such as Mg++ held two or more phosphate groups.
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Each different strain of the HIV virus has different proteins on its envelope. This is part of the reason why HIV is so hard to fight. I will discuss the fact that there are different strains of the virus later in this essay. (Bibliography part three) (Bibliography part three) The human immunodeficiency virus attaches to a CD4 protein on the surface of a white blood cell, and the envelope fuses with the cell membrane. The HIV virus fuses to the T-lymphocyte white blood cell.
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EcoR1, BamH1 and HindIII So, from this, the bands and smears that appear could be predicted. It would also be reasonable to show that the column with no restriction enzymes present would have no fragmentation of the ?-DNA, as the ?-DNA would not be broken down. For EcoRI: There will be one band near the start (21 226 base pairs fragment) as it is the biggest and so will travel the shortest in the gel electrophoresis. There will be another band about 2-3 times as far as the first, which is the 7 421 base pair fragment. I'm reasoning it will be about 2-3 times as far because it is around a third of the size.
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HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is an enveloped, double-stranded RNA virus, containing two identical RNA strands. Each of its 72 surface knobs contains a glycoprotein capable of binding to a CD4 receptor on the surface of certain host cells (e.g., T-helper cells). The "stalk" that supports the knob is a transmembrane glycoprotein which may also play a role in attachment to host cells. RNA is like the construction boss. Cells use RNA to tell enzymes how to build a specific part of a cell.
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Second generation biofuels have utilised biomass in the production of bioethanol. However, conversion of biomass to fermentable sugars faces many challenges due to the complexity of lignocellulose as a substrate. Filamentous fungi are exploited commercially for their saprophytic activity and their ability to release cell wall degrading enzymes and have also been used in bioethanol production. Enzymes, such as cellulases from Trichoderma reesei, are part of the breakdown of biomass however, very little is still known about the physiological response of fungi to lignocellulose.
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Bernard are incredibly different phenotypically but are still the same species. Darwin honed his ideas over six editions of On the Origin of species and the book became the foundation for all future studies of evolution and natural selection. Darwin?s theory was not alone. Arthur Wallace independently wrote a paper that included an explanation on natural selection that was presented together with Darwin?s ideas in 1858 and Jean Baptiste La Marck, James Hutton and Charles Lyell had all quite recently posed theories on adaptation and gradualism (Hide, G.
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