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University Degree: Other Authors

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  1. How Should Great Expectations End?

    The ending of "Great Expectations" is more controversial than it may seem at first. Not everyone knows that for Great Expectations are two endings, this is because the most encountered ending is the romantic one. But before writing the scene in which Pip enters back into Estella's life at the very right moment, as she has led "a most unhappy life, and as being separated from her husband, who had used her with great cruelty, and who had become quite renowned", he finds Estella in the garden and sees "no shadow of another parting from her," Dickens wrote another, less romantic ending to the book.

    • Word count: 1085
  2. Utilitarianism Analysing the validity of its criticism in Dickens' "Hard Times".

    He aimed to evaluate the usefulness of existing institutions, practices and beliefs. He lived through a time of major social, political and economic change and the 'industrial revolution,' with the massive economic and social shifts that were caused by it, the rise of the middle class, revolutions in France and America are all reflected in his considerations on existing institutions. Many of his works give an insight into the great need for reform which was lacking, or sometimes misguided in that age.

    • Word count: 1428
  3. Fasting, Feasting by Anita Desai; Themes and Characters

    Yet the limited window leads the reader to believe that the Pattons are devoid of any strong family ties, both within their immediate family unit and in their extended family. Arun is the character who envisions the similarities between the two families toward the end of the novel. Ironically, it is the youngest person among all the characters, Arun, who can see the differences in how his mother and Mrs. Patton direct their families. More poignantly, it is Arun who sees how Uma and Melanie are alike in their sublimated frustrations, destined to struggle against their circumstances with mothers who are either unwilling or unable to help.

    • Word count: 1047
  4. In Crime and Punishment, both Sonya and Dunya are the embodiments of Christian virtue, which they demonstrate in their self-sacrifice, abasement, and suffering.

    Both Sonya and Dunya are images of Christ in their willingness to surrender themselves and their most valuable personal possessions for the sake of those they love. In particular, Sonya, the eldest daughter of the drunken Marmeladov, is remarkable for her denial of her own interests and sense of spiritual morality in order to improve the circumstances of her family. In the novel, Sonya is described as being childlike of character, naturally embodying qualities of purity, innocence, meekness, and modesty.

    • Word count: 2452
  5. The Thematic Parallels Between Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov

    and crime, murder in particular, and psychological punishment as themes in his most famous publications, including Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov, both of which include murder as a central thematic element.2 In Crime and Punishment, Alyona, the pawnbroker, and her sweet but slow sister Lizaveta are brutally murdered by the protagonist, Rodion Romanovich Raskolnikov. In his original plans for the murder, Raskolnikov intended to kill only the pawnbroker. By committing this murder, Raskolnikov believed that he would be performing a sort of service to society -- ridding the world of the greedy, thieving "louse," while also proving to

    • Word count: 4101
  6. In what ways, and to what extent, does Mrs Dalloway illustrate Woolfs intention to use her novel to criticise the social system, and to show it at work, at its most intense ? (Woolf, A Writers Diary, 1923)

    On my initial forays into researching Virginia Woolf my opinion was very closed, I felt she was very insular. Commenting on the outside world from the safety of her own well educated and wealthy life. But now I feel I passed judgment too quickly. Woolf came from a challenging background, loosing her mother at a young age and coping with depression at different stages of her life. She was an imperative aspect of a groundbreaking generation of people who were trying to shake off their Victorian roots and reach for something new, something different.

    • Word count: 2444
  7. Diaspora in Junot Diaz's "The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao".

    well as national borders are porous.2 The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao begins in the 1970s in Paterson, northern New Jersey, an area highly populated by immigrants from the Caribbean. Hypatia Belicia Cabral, Beli in short, migrated to the United States in 1962 where she then had two children, Lola and Oscar. The family represents the modern history of the Dominican Republic. Oscar and Lola are first generation Dominican-American, but relate more to American culture than that of their ancestors.

    • Word count: 2390
  8. Great Expectations. The main character I will explore in this essay is the central character Pip. Although events are portrayed through an adult Pips perspective, at times the narration is mediated through the views of the child Pip.

    As Pip recalls the 'mortal terror of the young man who wanted [his] heart and liver ... mortal terror of [the] interlocutor with the iron leg; ... mortal terror of [himself]' and the sister who 'repulsed him at every turn'(p.15), the reader starts to judge Magwitch and Mrs Joe's characters as being cruel. Furthermore, the repetition of the words 'mortal terror' in the description given by Pip further intensifies his feelings of fear for the reader. It is clear to the reader, through the vivid description given, that Magwitch is a criminal.

    • Word count: 1718
  9. Science Versus Superstition in Dracula and Victoria England

    While traveling east, the British encountered a lot of new and previously unknown commodities, cultures, and people. These eastern cultures were seen as backwards to the British people. They had a sort of superstitious quality about them and were thought to be improper because of it. Britain didn't want their proper society contaminated by the superstitious cultures of the orient. There existed a fear that the east would begin to travel west and come back to Britain. The unknown societies and practices were so foreign to them. Britain feared the unknown and so took control by using science to try to understand and classify the cultures.

    • Word count: 1683
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    • Word count: 65688
  11. Discuss the treatment of female alienation as it is presented in The Color Purple and one other prose text from Literature and Gender.

    The Color Purple, which was published in 1982, is a full-length novel and, this too, deals with the emotional suffering inflicted upon women, both by individual men and by a range of legal and social impediments to women's freedom of expression. It is about Celie, a strong but vulnerable woman, who, being poor, black, female, alone and uneducated, is held down by class and gender. However, she learns to lift herself up from sexual exploitation and brutality with the help of the love of another woman, Shug Avery.

    • Word count: 1653
  12. The short stories of Katherine Mansfield. Perhaps the story that most clearly delves into the issue of sexuality is Mansfields most provocative and controversial short story Bliss.

    Upon its publication, "Bliss" was subject to much criticism; Virginia Woolf claimed that it was uninteresting, while T.S. Eliot asserted that it was "without moral and social ramification". Though it is clear to see why such a radical story might not have been appreciated in its time, "Bliss" is far more than the predictable love-triangle tale is appears to be from the surface. The underlying theme of the story is a tentative insight into the nature of female sexuality. The scene in which Bertha and Pearl stand next to one another admiring the tree in the garden is clearly symbolic in terms of sexuality and undoubtedly tests the boundaries of female homoeroticism.

    • Word count: 1490
  13. Fast Food Nation

    E coli 0517: H7 is a new pathogen whose spread can be attributed to social and technological changes. Cattle infected with E coli show few signs of illness. This pathogen spreads through America's food supply with the help of huge feedlots, slaughterhouses and hamburger grinders. In addition to the E coli virus, scientists have discovered many more food borne pathogens. The nations leading agri business firms are against any more food safety regulations. The U.S. government can recall defected baseball bats and toasters but they cannot recall a few thousand pounds of contaminated meat.

    • Word count: 3205
  14. The Life of a Monster

    Victor works hard on gathering the pieces of corpses from various places and piecing them together to create his "monster. After a long process the creature is complete, yet the first signs of life in his creation horrify Victor. Surely in piecing this together he would have predicted what he would see on the day that the creature awoke and his eyes rose for the first time, then why was Victor so horrified? Imagine waking to realize you man who gave you brought you this new life was standing before you horrified beyond his own imagination.

    • Word count: 1671
  15. Madness need not be all break-down. It may also be break-through. It is potential liberation and renewal as well as enslavement and existential death. R. D. Laing (The Politics of Experience) Discuss this quote in relation to at least one of

    no real purpose in life, "These girls looked awfully bored to me....they seemed bored as hell."[4] Binary oppositions prevail as the foreground for Esther and Frank's demise; Esther's liminality creates an ambiguity as to when her madness truly begins. Meanwhile Frank's identity is born about what he is not; a woman, only to be disclosed that the foundation of his identity is in fact a fallacy. Transcendence contributes to Esther's madness from her disgust of anything impure "I am very pure" stated Esther [5] while Frank tends to thrive on the likes of blood, dirt and grime such as the "small heads and bodies" [6] of deceased animals on the " sacrifice poles" [7] .

    • Word count: 3145
  16. Analysis of Philomel Cottage

    Then she meet Gerald Martin, and we know he's going to marry her because of the family name. All we know about him is he's passionate, and he falls in love with violence (maybe a foreshadowing), and they get engaged in a week. It's surprising, risky, maybe dangerous, and establish a great difference between Dick and Gerald. Gerald doesn't wait, doesn't know Alix and Alix doesn't know him. It's the opposite of Dick, but probably she's tired of waiting. Dick says the obvious thing: Alix doesn't know anything about Gerald.

    • Word count: 2220
  17. Turn of the Screw Response Paper

    Such a position of power and responsibility taken in such na�vet� has many times over throughout history proved to create hardship and paranoia for the individual in power. (Just look at the history of any monarchy.) On top of all this there is seedy history in the Bly house; the last governess is dead and so is Quint, the master's handy man, and the two of them were having an "infamous" affair (152). "Oh of their rank, their condition...She was a lady...And he so dreadfully below...I've never seen one like him.

    • Word count: 2272
  18. Free essay

    Lord Jim, Modernism and Colonialism

    An aspect of modernism which is outstanding in Lord Jim is the fragmentary nature of the story. Seen from different points of view, including an omniscient narrator in the first four chapters, the novel offers as such, different takes on colonialism. The typical Manichean way of approaching the Other is epitomized by the omniscient narrator, as we are introduced to the pilgrims first through his omniscient standpoint, wherein they are divest of individual consciousness and appear as one large group homogenized by their religious beliefs.

    • Word count: 2047
  19. "Hilditch is mad, bad and dangerous to know" Does Trevor endorse this view in the novel? Discuss with particular reference to the narrative techniques deployed in Felicia's Journey?

    Martin McQuillan in his book The Narrative Reader defines this narrative style as 'A mode of presentation in which a characters thoughts and utterances are offered without narratorial mediation or tag but in the manner of indirect speech or representation.' (McQuillan. 2000) Trevor make use of this style in Felicia journey for example on page 112 'It's all down to the boyfriends mother, he hears again and experiences a measure of relief he is not sure why.' The first unusual thing about Hilditch that causes speculation about his character is when he follows Felicia to the bus station and then waits for her there later.

    • Word count: 1398
  20. Tragedy of Tess of the D'Urbervilles

    play Tess's guilt to get their foot in to a better life, and the consequent manipulation and abuse of Tess by he "cus" Alec D'Urberville, and the various tragic events that take place thereafter. Hardy used his novels to get more attention drawn towards the hypocrisy of English society as well as deal with the transition of the beginning of England's shift from old-fashioned, socially condemning, agricultural nation towards to a more modern and industrial one. The ordeals faced by the Durbeyfield family can be seen as an allegory to the fading in importance of aristocracy and "old money" as well as the importance of a name when industries started to blossom, shortening the gap between classes into obscurity.

    • Word count: 2956
  21. 'The story I am telling is all imagination. These characters I create never existed outside my own mind.'(John Fowles). Discuss the way in which any two texts studied on the course problematise the process of storytelling and/or the role of the author.

    It is also impossible for the reader to take ownership of the story when the author is so insistent at writing himself into the novel. Fowles not only intrusively reminds us that he writes a fiction and not a truth, but appears himself in the shape of the man in the railway carriage- we are, however, further confused as to whether, perhaps, his story is based in reality, as he observes Charles and asks 'now what could I do with you?'4 This brings us to the conclusion that, perhaps, Fowles truly observed a man on a train, and, in doing so, brought the character of Charles, and so the story, into being, and so confuses the story from reality.

    • Word count: 2939
  22. An Examination of Figurative and Literal Debris in J.G. Ballards "Concrete Island"

    Therefore, Concrete Island shows that figurative and literal debris are indispensible for Maitland to rebuild his life. The days on the island weakens Maitland physically. However, he survives because he is able to manipulate Jane and Proctor to complete tasks that would benefit him. The existence of these two characters allows Maitland to exercise dominance over them and in effect the whole island. At the beginning of the novel, Maitland uses self-pity to motivate survival. However, after encountering Proctor and Jane, his source of motivation shifts to the cruel exploitation of these two characters (Ballard, Concrete, 139).

    • Word count: 2038
  23. Is 'Alice's Adventures in Wonderland' a book for children or adults?

    This sense of anxiety is exciting for both audiences, young and old. Unlike some of the later literal themes and concepts which would go above the heads of most children this sense of urgency and frustration lends itself to the story as a powerful literary device for both adults and child readers. Lewis Carroll also published another book based off of ?Alice?s Adventures in Wonderland? called ?The Nursery Alice? in 1890 which was not only illustrated in colour, but was also simplified and made easier for children to understand. It was made clear within the story that it?s a dream from the start.

    • Word count: 1872
  24. A Face Without a Heart - An Essay on A Picture of Dorian Gray

    Dorian begins to date Sybil Vane, solely for her acting and the ?aesthetic value?, however she truly falls in love with him, and because of this, she can no longer act. She tells him he ?is more to her than all art can ever be? (97). However, because she can no longer act, Dorian turns cold to her, stating that he only cared for her because of her artistic value, and leaves her. This is the beginning of the unstoppable succession of sins Dorian commits throughout the novel.

    • Word count: 1380
  25. Feminist Consciousness in Hemingway's "Cat in the Rain".

    However, I want to argue that Hemingway conveyed in the story has much to do with the feminist consciousness. We can feel depression and isolation of the American wife from the very beginning of the story. She is in a hotel of a foreign country where they are the only Americans, having to speak an unfamiliar language, with nobody else known but her husband who turns out to be indifferent to her. Her depression mainly comes from him who neglects her needs and feelings. Thus, she is eager to be rescued and to get rid of this depressing situation.

    • Word count: 989

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Assess the extent to which Great Expectations is a realist novel

    "It is clear from the argument above that, despite initial examination, it would prove exceptionally difficult to categorize Great Expectations as a purely realist novel due to the sub-genres that it so clearly contains. However, it remains that clear that realism is a strong genre within the novel and many elements are covered that fulfil the primary aim of the realist novel. It is also necessary to note that there are quite possibly a number of other interpretations and genres within the novel that have not been addressed here and therefore the fairest conclusion to draw is that one must refrain from trying to categorize this novel as any particular genre but look at it as having many realist features with numerous possible sub-genres within."

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