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AS and A Level: Environmental Management

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Five pointers to help you succeed when studying environmental management

  1. 1 “Sustainability” or “sustainable development” is key to every environmental management question. This was defined by the Brundtland Commission in 1987.
  2. 2 Show that you are aware that environmental management is a controversial topic, and that there is often a wide range of opinion about what the issues are and what the best strategies might be.
  3. 3 Questions about resource management may be improved by referring to theoretical classifications of resources such as finite or infinite resources, human or natural resources, stock or flow resources, renewable or non-renewable resources.
  4. 4 People and their activities have affected the physical environment. But the physical environment has also affected people and human activities. This is often overlooked.
  5. 5 Cost benefit analysis is an important idea. The best answers make use of actual data and figures to indicate costs and benefits.

Common errors

  1. 1 Students often mix up the greenhouse effect, the ozone hole and acid rain. They are different problems with different causes and effects.
  2. 2 It is not very precise to talk about “global warming”. It is better to refer to “global climate change” as not all areas are predicted to get warmer, and “climate change” includes changes in rainfall and other variables not just temperature.

Three important environmental management facts

  1. 1 The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) stated in 2007 that global climate change is happening and it is 95% certain that this is due in part to human activity.
  2. 2 The concept of “peak oil” was first proposed by M.King Hubbert in 1956, but has recently become more widely used. Many experts believe the peak of global oil production has already occurred or will occur around 2020.
  3. 3 It has been estimated that about half of the Earth's mature tropical forests have been destroyed since 1947 (a loss of between 7.5 million and 8 million km2 ). Some scientists have predicted that by 2030 there will only be 10% of the 1947 forests remaining.

  • Marked by Teachers essays 5
  • Peer Reviewed essays 1
  1. The advantages and disadvantages of 'fracking'

    Total Academic Infringment Penalty (A,B) ____ The search for sources of energy began when human beings first started to burn wood or other forms of biomass to generate heat for cooking and heating themselves (Bodansky, 2004 cited in Bailey, 2015, p.218). It was followed by hydropower and wind energy sources. By the second half of the nineteenth century, however, natural gas was gradually playing a significant part as an energy source. ?Fracking? is a new technology following the boom of natural gas, which uses high-pressure fluids to fracture shale formations deep below ground, and then releasing the natural gas trapped within (Thompsom, 2012).

    • Word count: 1045

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • To what extent can environmental analysis conducted by marketing managers ever be considered as objective and impartial?

    "Conclusion This essay has shown how organisational and individual level factors can influence the analysis process. From the assessment and evaluation done throughout this essay, it can be concluded that environmental analysis can never be considered objective or impartial. Although formalised techniques have been developed, environmental analysis cannot function without the "human" element of cognitive interpretation which is impossible to define in absolute terms. It seems therefore that environmental analysis would remain much more of an art than a science."

  • Evaluate The Impact Of Deforestation In Indonesia.

    "In conclusion the impact of deforestation of the tropical rainforest in Indonesia has both positive and negative effects. The main positive outcomes of the deforestation are the increased employment opportunities and incomes. This leads to reducing foreign debts and increasing the countries export earnings. There is more land available for settlement and farming to feed and house a growing population. All which lead to the economic development of Indonesia and an improved way of life for its inhabitants. However I feel that the negative effects of the deforestation far outweigh the positive. The majority of positive effects are only short-term gains, and are not sustainable in the way they are currently operated. When the forest is gone, possibly by 2005, Indonesia will lose one of its main sources of income. The cost to the environment will be enormous, not only will the trees be gone, but so will the animals, plants and birds. This process will be irreversible unless there are strict conservation laws, which are enforced, and a proper replanting and reforestation scheme."

  • It has been suggested that nuclear and/or wind power will fill the gap left by oil and gas. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of such a proposal with reference to the UK and/or China.

    "Conclusion Each country demands differ and this makes certain types of energy sources suitable and equally some sources not appropriate. China and UK is a perfect example of this as one country wants high productivity levels where as the UK want more sustainable, cheap and eco-friendly options. Each type of multi energy sourcing has its advantages and disadvantages and these need to be evaluated. Each country will have different opinions upon the suitability of different energy sources depending upon what they expect and want. However, every country needs to be prepared for the time when oil supplies begin to run out and there isn't a definite option which is right or wrong. Everyone will have their own opinions and only time will tell who was right."

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