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AS and A Level: History of the USA, 1840-1968
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To what extent was opposition from politicians responsible for the failures of the civil rights campaigns between 1945 -1955?
Despite this, Truman still won the election. This suggests that political opposition wasn?t necessarily the most significant reason for the civil rights campaigns failures as Truman showed that a candidate could support the civil rights movement and still be elected, regardless of southern opposition. However despite the south not being able to stop Black Americans gaining Civil rights they were able to significantly slow down the process. After the 1954 Brown V Board of education case southern middle class citizens set up the White Citizens Councils which showed that the south would not accept desegregation.
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Hammurabi, however, wanted people to know the legal principles his government would follow. So he had artisans carve 300 laws on a stone pillar for all to see. On it he proclaimed his goals ?To cause justice to prevail in land, to destroy the wicked and evil, that the strong may not oppress the weak.? (Elizabeth Ellis Gaynor; Anthony Esler; Burton F. Beers et al N.J: Prentice hall, 2001. Print.) ?From the code, it is evident that the Babylonians did not believe all people were equal. The code treated slaves, commoners, and nobles differently. Women had a number of rights, including the ability to buy and sell property and to obtain a divorce.
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After 1865, the power was back into the hands of the whites and they felt that freedom for black people was a threat to whites. This led the White Americans in the Southern states to introduce a chain of unfair laws called ?Jim Crow Laws?. These laws brought back r****m and segregation which derived from slavery. In 1896, a law was passed which made the return of segregation legal as long as the education of blacks and whites was kept equal by having the same opportunities and facilities.
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However in practice Johnson failed to enforce this requirement. In addition to this Black Codes were introduced by state legislature which intended to limit or avoid the extension of voting rights to freed slaves. The codes also withheld African Americans the right serve on a jury, give evidence against a white person, carry arms and marry a white person, all of which demonstrate the denial of equality to African American?s by the southern states. The Republicans in congress counteracted the Black Codes with the 14th Amendment to the constitution which granted all citizens protection of the law without discrimination (however only one southern state ratified this amendment ? Tennessee).
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Do you agree that the wartime alliance between the USA and the Soviet Union during WW2 was bound to fail once the war ended?
With ideologies that were poles apart, the main powers of the alliance were quite an incompatible combination. The west particularly despised communism and prior to the war during the 1930?s growth of Germany liked the idea of a strong Germany to act as a buffer to the Soviets and their communist influence. Similarly throughout the war the west was reluctant to send western troops to help the Russians, wanting them to be weakened by their war effort and would therefore be less likely to attempt to spread communism.
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To what extent was the impact of WW1 a key factor in the US decision to restrict immigration 1917-29?
Perhaps it was just a form of passive r****m that reflected the mood of the country at the time. Others plead more patriotic reasons; the idea that foreigners were distrusted in times of crisis and weakened the US war efforts. As patriotism grows to strengthen morale during war time, so too does resentment of foreigners who begin to be seen increasingly as ?outsiders?. This feeling was particularly strong in the US as it was primarily Italian-Americans protesting against the fighting which was viewed as disloyal.
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This would therefore be seen as a way for America to get their answers to succeeding in defending democracy. However, it is hard to argue that the Americans were going to Korea to defend democracy when they were intent in re-instating the government of Rhee. The two main problems with Rhee?s presidency were both and still are great controversial issues. The first was the initial creation of Rhee?s government not really being democratic. The definition of democracy is as follows ?A system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives?,
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How accurate is it to say that the status of black people in the United States changed very little in the years 1945
However there was one problem with the ruling, and that was that they didn?t actually set a time by which all the schools had to stop segregation. This is an example of de jure but not de facto, a change in the law but the change wasn?t really put into practice. After the first year, the NAACP realised that there was very little change in the desegregation of schools in the South, so they went to the Supreme Court again who produced the Brown II ruling.
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The main question here was, should the government (a decidedly federal one by this stage) be representative of the states, or of their populations themselves? The state delegates were identifiably divided on this issue ? the ?big? state delegate?s like those from Virginia and the Carolina?s presented arguments to form a legislature based on the population of states, where the states with the larger populations were granted more representation in the legislature than the smaller ones. The ?small? state delegates like those from New Jersey declared that the legislature should represent the states themselves, with each state being given equal representation.
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For instance, test cases in 1883 resulted in a Supreme Court decision that the civil rights act of 1875 was unconstitutional. The basis, on which the act was deemed unconstitutional, was the fact that state governments and not federal governments should decide on their own internal affairs. The act had provided some protection for African Americans against discrimination and segregation; in particular it asserted their right to equality before the law. The fact that state governments could now decide their own internal affairs does not seem fair to African Americans, as southern states and indeed their politicians were frequently r****t and often took on political responsibilities to ensure white supremacy, which does not bode well for black civil rights.
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All who purchased shares at a cost of £12 10s shared in the success or failure of the venture. The Virginia Company was formed both to bring profit to its shareholders and to establish an English colony in the ‘New World’, America. Early industries such as glass manufacture, pitch and tar production, beer and wine making took advantage of natural resources. However, the settlers could not devote as much time to trade as they were too busy trying to survive. The problems they faced were attacks by Native Americans, poor food and water supplies and arguments amongst the settlers.
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The emergence of the black power movement in the early 1960's corresponded with the success for the civil rights campaigns. The focus on the campaigns meant that the practical issues relating to social and economic factors didnt improve.
The nation of Islam also indulged in vicious feuding within their own organisation for example the assassination of Malcolm X in 1965, this could have been an effect of the statement Malcolm X made about John Kennedy when he said that ?chickens were coming home to roost? implying that Kennedy got what he deserved, the result being criticism towards the NOI as the whites seen Kennedy as an icon. Incidents of violence, such as attacks on white people in the race riots of watts in 1965, were blacks burnt down businesses owned by whites and verbally abused white police officers,
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Assess the view that the introduction of National Prohibition in the USA was inspired mainly by Protestant Religious Idealism
Influenced by the Protestant idealism many states chose to go ?dry? and fight against the manufacture, sale and transportation of alcohol. Protestant America believed strongly that alcohol was work of ?the devil? and to protect the American nation and its next generation, the Prohibition movement must continue and succeed. The Protestant religion had many connections in the Progressive Era, such as the WCTU, the WASPs, and the Anti-Saloon League which all provided support such as mass of factions, financial power and a political presence. Interpretation A fully supports this view, suggesting that those ?wet? citizens would be grouped as ?unregenerate?.
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After Mexico?s independence, Mexico wanted to increase the population so they encouraged American immigrants to move to Texas. During that year, Moses Austin received a grant from the Spanish government to start a colony. After he died, his son, Stephen, took over and continued his father?s project. Stephen offered large grants of land costing the Americans very little money. Here is where he laid out the foundation of the small town of San Felipe de Austin. During the next few years, American settlers filed into Texas more than Mexico expected which made the cushion region become a threat.
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What was the short term significance of the maintenance of slavery in the southern states to the outbreak of the US Civil War?
This is more of an interpretation of the events surrounding the build up to the Civil War and an analysis of the tensions and concerns associated with this rather than Rhodes?s single cause theory. Historian James Ford Rhodes in 1919 declared that ?of the American civil war it may safely be asserted that there was a single cause, slavery?. This shows the importance slavery played around the time of the war. However it may also suggest that as this source is written a relatively short time after the Civil War (1919)
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This indicates that Oswald could have hit his target of the president from the Texas School Book Depository Building. On the morning of the shooting Oswald was seen carrying a long parcel to work claiming that it contained ?curtain rods? to his work at the Texas School Book Depository. The majority of employees left the building to catch a glimpse of the president in the motorcade. Therefore Oswald would have been the only person working on the 6th floor at the time of the shooting. An eyewitness account put forth by Howard Brennan described the man with the rifle as a white, slender build, 5 foot 10 inches, and approximately 165 pounds.
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Accordingly President Kennedy was soft on communism and to someone like Oswald the best kind of president. He himself said ?Kennedy was a good leader? expressing admiration and showing how he lacked the motive to do so. Though Oswald had a limited motive, his opportunity to do such a thing is substantial. On 21st November 1963 before the arrival of the president a person named Howard Brennan has reported that he has seen a man on the 6th floor of the Book Depository when he was sitting on a wall directly opposite to the building.
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