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AS and A Level: History of the USA, 1840-1968
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Truman reinforced his support for racial equality by stating as such in his State of the Union speech (an important speech which many Americans watch) to the NAACP, the first president to do so, in both 1947 and 1948. Truman?s increasingly liberal stance risked splitting his party and placing his presidential bid in 1948 in peril- however in 1948 he continued promoting civil rights by issuing executive orders to desegregate the military (a move that caused widespread dissent and antagonism from Truman?s political allies and enemies)
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USA were interfering with a country?s freedom meanwhile stating in their constitution that all people should be free. This provoked anti-war marches to spread and, since Civil Rights activists frequently led them, the cooperation between the government and Civil Rights Movement decreased. As a result of not being able to negotiate reform with the government, the yet-non-violent Civil Rights Activists were being pushed towards Black Pride and militarization. Besides, Vietnam War was a very expensive project, the money had to be diverted from other areas of government spending such as Johnson?s ?Great Society? and there could have simply been no resources for further improvements in civil rights.
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He also set CGCC-> (Committee on Government Contract Compliance) federal defence contracts were not supposed to be given to companies discriminating Blacks. Eisenhower appointed strongly liberal Earl Warren the Chief Justice of The Supreme Court who decided on Brown v Board of Education. 1955-1965: He also sent federal troops in 1957 to Little Rock to escort Black students to school. He introduced two Civil Rights Acts (1957 and 1960) both of which were intended to ensure all citizens were able to vote. Kennedy insisted on employing Blacks to civil service(employed 4 black federal judges inc.
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All Blacks from Montgomery stopped using busses and walked to their workplaces instead. This had a huge economical impact on bus companies and downtown businesses and resulted in busses being desegregated and other civil rights protests spreading across the South. King was also seeking media attention and provoked violence so that people from more stable places could see the treatment Blacks received and sympathize with them.
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What was once a cause that many white Americans had felt obliged to support in order to fulfil America?s constitutional rights to its citizens and improve their nation?s reputation in the world had slowly morphed into a radical, hate-filled ideology. Organizations such as the Nation of Islam, which gained prominence in the documentary The Hate that Hate Produced, promoted black separatist and nationalist ideologies along with an outlandish and bizarre form of the religion of Islam that inevitably led many white Christians to be repelled by black civil rights.
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How Far Do You Agree That The Impact Of World War 2 Was The Main Reason The Position Of Afro-Americans Changed?
Americans which became evident following the report ?to secure these rights.? Following the report several initiatives were organized, notably the signing of executive orders, that were crucial in improving the lives of Black Americans. As they guaranteed fair employment practices in the Civil Services and that defense contracts would not go to companies that discriminated against Black Americans, hence giving them more opportunities in the workplace. On the other hand it could be argued that the Second World War?s influence was in limited.
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To what extent was Marcus Garvey the most significant African-American civil rights leader in the period 1865-1945?
Marcus Garvey wrote for the ?n***o World? a newspaper that at its peak circulated over 500.000 copies. Garvey clearly demonstrated his popularity amongst those that were involved in the ?militant black nationalist? movement. However, Booker T. Washington?s support was more influential, although it was not as large. Washington gained access to meeting with president Roosevelt, which was something that Garvey never achieved, allowing Washington to press his cause at the top level of government, making his support base more significant even though it was smaller.
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To What Extent Were The Activities Of the White r****t Groups, the Most Important Reason for Continued Discrimination Against African Americans 1865-1992
Between 1880 and 1910 the lynching campaign from the KKK against African Americans was at it?s height. Victims would be accused of serious crimes so that it could be claimed justice could not wait for the courts and the victim must be dispensed of immediately. This demonstrated the complete removal of black rights and as they were public events, often spread feelings of hatred towards the African Americans. In 1915, the film The Birth of a Nation was released, glorifying the first Klan, creating a nationwide Klan craze and grew rapidly and a brutal stereotype.
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On September 4th 15 year old Elizabeth Eckford was greeted by a mob screaming ?lynch her! Lynch her!? The whole of the Little Rock Nine were continually abused, spat on, tripped. Melba Pattillo was nearly blinded by a chemical thrown in her eyes. This array of violence sparked an increase in civil rights protestors and also led to the Supreme Court decision that any law that sought to keep public schools segregated was unconstitutional in Cooper v.
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Also, Thurgood Marshall was the residing lawyer during the ?Morgan v Virginia? case in 1946, which after being taken to the Supreme court made segregation on all interstate buses illegal. These cases provided an excellent example of the impact that could be made by the NAACP using the legal system and legislation. Another major case across America in 1945 was ?Brown v Board of Education?; this case headed once again by Thurgood Marshall was seen as the best course of action at this time at the US was in the middle of the cold war world.
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The Federalists and the Republicans both had very strong views of how the future of America should look like.
They also used Alexander Hamiltons philosophy of having the government backed by the support of the wealthy and rich to fuel its power. This view can be best summed up in this way, "The country needed a government composed of the best, the brightest and the wealthiest men in American society." While the Federalists wanted a strong all-powerful government, the Republicans wanted the least amount of government governing a nation as possible. Thomas Jefferson, the leader of this party believed in "states rights" where the individual states would govern themselves with the least amount of influence from a national power.
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To what extent was Federal government responsible for improving the status of black people in the US in the years 1945-55?
For example, court cases such as Brown vs Topeka (1954), Browder vs Gayle (1956), and Morgan vs Virgina (1946) were all very important in improving the status of black people. This is because the Topeka case argued that the ?separate but equal? doctrine was a contradiction in terms, that is to say they believed that it was impossible for citizens to receive services that were both ?separate? and ?equal?, The Browder case decision ruled that segregation of buses was illegal and the Morgan case ruled that segregation on interstate buses was illegal which meant that on buses both black and white people had the same status.
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This approach opposed the NAACP's commitment to integration. However, he returned to the NAACP as director of special research from 1944 to 1948. During this period he was active in placing the grievances of African Americans before the United Nations, serving as a consultant to the UN founding convention (1945) and writing the famous "An Appeal to the World" (1947). Inspired by what he heard, Marcus Garvey returned to Jamaica and established the Universal n***o Improvement Association (UNIA) and published the pamphlet, The n***o Race and Its Problems.
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How far were the forces opposed to civil rights responsible for the failure of the civil rights movement in the 1960s?
According to Vivienne Sanders ?after 1965 it became hard to do more? (for black people) due to the opposition from Congressmen and people in high positions of power in government. ?70% of white Americans opposed large numbers of blacks living in their neighbourhood? which explains why it was so difficult to promote integrated housing. In addition the ?average black income, always much lower than white, was now only 53% of the national average? This demonstrates the almost insurmountable problems that King had to face when he took the civil rights movement to the North. When King made the move to the North during the mid-1960s he was met by strong opposition to the civil rights movement which was partly due to his anonymity to Northern Americans.
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Nevertheless one area that made little to no progress or had no equality by 1968 was housing. Firstly, the civil rights campaigners of the 1950?s and 1960?s achieved some major and significant victories in the area of education. The sweat v. painter established that blacks and whites were entitled to equal education resources. The 1954 brown v. board of education went even further establishing that the separate but equal principle was separate and inferior thus segregation in schools was found illegal by a unanimous vote moulded by Earl Warren and then the brown II in 1955 and cooper v.
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On the 28th November 1928, seven million transactions took place, of course a rise from the estimated five million. America had gone Wall Street crazy. The amount of trading in the market grew in line with the optimism of America?s prosperity; this optimism was fuelled by the statements of confidence given by the government. The stock market was superficial in seeming unshakeable at this stage. This was due to factors like confidence in the economy, media encouragement, brokers? selling technique and many more which pushed the stock market into a huge frenzy. The confidence in the economy could be seen as over confident, those with surplus funds naturally wanted to use them to make even more money.
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How Accurate Is It To Say That The Status Of Black People In The US Changed Very Little In The Years 1945 1955?
This further extended to public transport, as on buses blacks were forced to sit at the back of the and fully expected to give up their seat if a white person wanted it. They were even made to move if a white person occupied the same row as them, this continued onto interstate trains where carriages were fully segregated as coloured passengers were not allowed on to a white carriage. Showing little change from the conditions they were previously faced with.
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New Republican President was in line with people's mood in the country as he was little interested in foreign affairs. He invented the famous policy of «Normalcy»: «not revolution, but restoration», «not internationality, but nationality». The main idea was to meet needs of the nation by returning to past values of non-involvement. He was a good president candidate, especially after Woodrow Wilson who was strongly and uncommpromisingly arguing the need of the USA signing the Treaty of Versailes and joining The League of Nations, however it was refused by congress highliting once again the moof of the country in favour of isolationism.
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How far were disagreements between MLK and Johnson the major reason for the failure of Kings Northern campaigns?
This is because the northern states face racial discrimination, tactics should have been altered to counter this but in the Chicago Freedom Movement of 1966, King decided to use the same tactics of non-violent direct action that had been used successfully in the South. But this had challenged segregation rather than the problem of racial discrimination that they had to face now. Using tactics that worked for southern states was bound to not work successfully, and it could have even been doomed to fail from the start.
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Truman decreased discrimination in federal employment and contracts (Executive Order 9980) 3. 1948: Executive Order 9981 - ends discrimination in armed forces 4. Appointment of blacks to prestigious posts (eg ? 1949: William Haist = first black federal judge, Ralph Bunche = Ambassador to UN in 1950) On the other hand ? 1. Truman tried to open more public housing to blacks. BUT ? urban renewal programme often left blacks home less ? fewer houses available 2. Federal defence contracts not supposed to be given to companies that discriminated.
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How accurate is it to say that the growth of Black Power was the most important factor in the weakening of the civil rights movement in the 1960s?
Many people were against Black Power for this reason, as it meant that they were doing to the white people what had previously been done to them. This was seen as a contradiction and therefore not a progress in civil rights. One group that used violence, were the Nation of Islam, who were a militant group. The group believed that Blacks should live completely separately from Whites and that they should be self-governed. This group claimed to part of Islam, but in fact were in complete contrast to the ideas of Islam, as followers of Islam believe that the ?purpose of existence is to love and serve God?, and this organisation were committing unloving acts of violence.
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Who or what was responsible for the creation of a divided, r****t & segregated society in the period 1877-1918?
Roosevelt recognised that merit trumped skin colour. But he had neither the desire to fight for better conditions for African-Americans and other races. Taft seemed uninterested in civil rights for Afro-Americans and even when he went on to become Chief Justice of the Supreme Court; he seemed to be more interested in issues such as property rights and the efficiency of the court as opposed to campaigning for the rights of Afro-Americans. Warren Harding may not agree with this as in his speech to 100,000 whites and coloureds in Birmingham, Alabama he said, ?The n***o is entitled to full economic
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Whilst the sinking of the USS Maine killed US sailors, little had been done to directly threaten the country. Again, this shows that the Spanish American war was not about defense, but about influencing the politics of other countries. Whilst the Teller Amendment initially indicated that the US were interested in protecting the sovereignty of Cuba, the Platt Amendment following the end of the war resorted back to imperialism. The strict rules placed on Cuba were focussed on ensuring American power and trade with the country. Not only this, but the increase in American investments in Cuba following the war further prove that they were looking for economic gain, as well as influence; in the 20 years following, investment in the country rose to $500m.
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Hoover was a humanitarian. This had been demonstrated in his past endeavours during the First World War and Mississippi floods. He believed in direct relief, and consequently repudiated a sort of government that would allow people to suffer and starve whilst waiting for the economy to recover. He therefore believed in the necessity of intervention. 2. Hoover believed in Individualism, and desired a political and social environment that would enable any person, no matter their circumstances, to prevail and succeed through their own hard work and perseverence, such as Hoover himself had done.
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This is significant as it shows how the NAACP may have achieved the aims of higher employment for blacks, but this only lasted throughout WW2. Moreover by targeting economic equality meant the NAACP had shown widespread involvement in not just education and transport. Furthermore they used the 14th and 15th constitutional amendments in an attempt to protect the rights of individuals in their favour; the amendments stated that citizenship rights and voting rights were to be guaranteed to all who were born in the USA, regardless of their race.
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