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AS and A Level: Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill

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Writing about ‘Arousal’ in sport

  1. 1 Definitions of arousal may vary, but whichever one you use, you must acknowledge the author and the date it was established. This practice is essential and normal for study in higher education.
  2. 2 Arousal is necessary and ideally is ‘managed’ to maintain ‘optimal’ levels. This means that you are ‘excited’ both cognitively and physiologically enough to be ‘ready’ to perform, but are not overly aroused so much that your performance will deteriorate as a result.
  3. 3 Many questions or assignments will expect you to analyse the 3 key theories of arousal : Drive, Inverted U and Catastrophe Theory. Analysis requires you to present both the credible or advantageous side to the theory AND the less constructive or valuable perspective (ie the good and bad points about it as a theory to explain something).
  4. 4 Theories are JUST that – They are someone’s interpretation or reasoning for something. They will present evidence to support their theory, however, it is possible that another person will disagree and will present a different theory as explanation. When writing ‘critically’ you should be open to exploring, considering and explaining BOTH perspectives.
  5. 5 Drive Theory (Hull, 1951) is the most simplistic and suggested that the more aroused you are, the more likely the dominant response will be performed (this doesn’t matter whether it’s the correct skill or not!)

    The Inverted U hypothesis (Hebb 1957); suggests that performance will increase up til the optimal level of arousal and above that, will ‘gradually’ descrease.

    Catastrophe theory (Fazey and Hardy 1988) develops this, but suggests that arousal above optimal levels will ‘catastrophically’ drop, but can be increased again if cognitive arousal is reduced and controlled.

How to interpret an assignment task or essay title

  1. 1 Understand the question fully BEFORE you write - whichever module topic it is from, the process of preparing and constructing the answer will be similar. It is good practice to interpret the title or question before you think about the answer or writing. Too often, students begin writing and just follow their stream of thought thereafter. This can lead to inconsistencies and disjointed arguments.
  2. 2 • Question analysis – what is the command verb being used. This is the verb that indicates what you have to do to the topic.
  3. 3 Question analysis – Analyse, discuss and evaluate are sometimes prefixed with ‘critically’ – these all require you to consider 2 sides or different perspectives on a topic, with your thoughts and conclusions.
  4. 4 Question analysis – Describe, outline and state are more simplistic and require statements about something. Explain takes this further and requires detail as to WHY you state something; a degree of reasoning.
  5. 5 • Sections of a question – Questions can sometimes require you to respond to more than one command verb and therefore write more than one section as an answer.

Technology in sport

  1. 1 Terminology – Use the appropriate jargon for equipment and facilities (eg: hypoxic or hypobaric chambers for simulated altitude training). This shows a higher level of research and knowledge.
  2. 2 Technology for safety –Many technological developments have intended to ensure the safety of participants and spectators. Sadly, many developments evolve as a result of a tragedy or where there have been problems (eg: a cord attaching runners on a treadmill to cut out the motor if they fall)
  3. 3 Technology for comfort – People of all levels of performance (from recreational to elite) appreciate and will buy equipment and clothing that allows them to train and compete in great comfort.
  4. 4 Technology for performance – There are so many examples of developments that increase an athlete’s performance. These include footwear suitable to different playing surfaces or SZR racing swim suit to reduce friction.
  5. 5 The technological debate – in any ‘critical’ task it should not be assumed that advances in technology are advantageous or appropriate. A higher level student will present arguments that both support and challenge the inclusion of technology in sport.

  • Marked by Teachers essays 2
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  1. Performance analysis of passing and tackling in rugby.

    If this situation arises then the performer should either re-gather the ball quickly and effectively to obtain possession or if a ruck has already been formed re-aline in attack shouting orders to his team mates as where and when he wants them to run effective and dynamic lines to punish his defence. An example of a player who does this is Newzeland's Dan Carter; he can cut deference's apart with his fast hands and great decision making under great amounts of pressure.

    • Word count: 4859
  2. Tactical analysis of different formations used by football teams.

    Summary This is an all-round well balanced, adaptable formation with good width. There are many supporting options but the players (especially midfielders) would have to be able to work hard and have good stamina to maintain a good level of play. How my team uses this formation When my team uses this formation we use short quick passing around the defence and midfield as there is plenty of support in these areas. When the forwards have the ball one of our central midfielders will go up to support along with the wingers and the other central midfielders will stay back in case we lose the ball and need support at the back.

    • Word count: 3065
  3. PE coursework Chosen Sport Rugby -working on my weaknesses as a fullback

    He then gets into the tackling position; keeping his back straight and his head to the side of the ball carriers body. When executing the tackle he shrugs his shoulders on contact and simultaneously drives his shoulders upwards into the lower ribs, at the same time he wraps his arms around the ball carrier's thighs and hold tight. From this position it is possible for Noon to either drive the player backwards or turn him sideways in the tackle, depending on which will gain his team the greatest advantage.

    • Word count: 7117
  4. Basic Techniques and Tactics in Cricket.

    There are two types of barriers, the long barrier and the short barrier. The long barrier is performed by getting into the line of the ball and bending down sideways down so the knee and ankle are together and in a straight line together, acting as a barrier as you hands gather the ball. Your body acts the barrier hence the name. The short barrier is performed by squatting down with both feet together in a 'v' position. The basic technique to dive, to prevent runs is to, follow the ball and begin to hunch , and as you get low , just push forward onto your stomach with your arms in front of you with your legs flexed.

    • Word count: 3996
  5. Sports Analysis (Tennis)

    Biomechanically I am going to be looking at a factor that is vital. I will be looking at the serving technique and how this affects the success rate of your serve. To test these I am going to be measuring serving percentage during repeated tests and calculate an average and a range. I am going to be using video analysis to compare my serving technique to that of Andy Murray and analyse areas that need improvement. I will be conducting a serving exercise that will need me to do 10 serves from each side, 5 times.

    • Word count: 4164
  6. Describing and Explaining the Components of Fitness. Fitness and fitness testing

    These sorts of tests provide the trainers, coaches and athletes with meaningful information about what's going fine or what area needs progress. Testing Components of Fitness Flexibility what it is: is the measure of free movement in person's joints .This is especially needed for gymnast? However the range depends on the ligaments and muscles surrounding the joint, shape of the articulating surfaces and contact between tissue masses of adjacent segments. Flexibility can change, the change occurs when muscle and connective tissue adapt to range of motion frequently used and if full ranged is not used often then muscle and connective tissues tend to shorten.

    • Word count: 5058
  7. Fitness testing

    The distance from fingertips to box edge becomes your starting point. Executing your Exercise: Slowly bend hips and reach forward as far as possible. Move fingers along ruler to reach final position. Practise three times. The fourth time keep final position for two seconds and measure the value. To get results: Practice the exercise 3 times then get a partner to record you the fourth time, then look at the practices and your fourth results and see if you've gone further than your practices, well done. Advantages: This exercise should take about 5 minutes, this is an advantage because it's a quick and easy exercise to do, also there isn't anything

    • Word count: 4270
  8. Pe: Performance Profile Analysis

    During my time at Rayleigh boys I played in a variety of positions, such as right back, right midfield, centre midfield and as a striker. The position which I enjoy playing in the most is the centre midfield, this is because you are involved in much of the play and much of the team depends on how you perform, giving you more responsibility, also I prefer the centre midfield position to the right midfield position because in that position you would normally have to wait for the play to come to you.

    • Word count: 4060
  9. Personal Exercise Program #2

    Power is very important for my sport and I am fair in the category when compared to certain norms I struggle. Components of Fitness Speed - the capacity to move the whole body at the greatest velocity Why is it important? Both max speed and speed endurance are required in rugby. For example max speed is important to make the quick sprint between breakdowns and speed endurance is needed to the longer runs such as support or line running. Speed is essential for any rugby player regardless of position Strength - Ability of muscles to exert maximum force during a single contraction Why?

    • Word count: 6466
  10. Action Plan to improve my knowledge and understanding of a horse within the dressage phase

    It will be hard at first for Nebraska to find his balance as he will be working in a lot slower pace in which he is used to, each movement will also need to be a lot more collected. A racehorse is trained to gallop, whereas an event needs to be balanced in walk, trot, canter and gallop. Whilst the show jumping and cross country phases both include fences like a point to point would have had. The way you approach each fence is completely different to that of a race horse where they go as fast as they can at them.

    • Word count: 3756
  11. Skill analysis coursework

    1st serve (right box) 2nd serve (right box) 1st serve (left box) 2nd serve (left box) 4/10 40% 5/10 50% 5/10 50% 6/10 60% Looking at the quantitative data, you can see that the average serve success rate was quite poor. Only 40 to 60% of the serves were successful. Looking at the data qualitatively, you can see that there is a major flaw in my performer serving ability. The major problem in my performer's ability is the toss up, take back and contact. To perform an effective serve these three subroutines have to be performed precisely.

    • Word count: 6000
  12. A2 pe coursework

    Jenny takes time to aim who her pass goes to * Jenny does not rush the passes that she carries out * Jenny tries to concentrate on what she is doing * Jenny puts full effort into pushing the ball as far as possible * She doesn't use her full body weight to push the ball on further * When jenny passes the ball, she doesn't always take into account the fact that the person they are passing to is moving.

    • Word count: 4660
  13. I have chosen to base my PEP on is hockey. Within in hockey there are certain components of fitness that are needed to ensure that the athlete is performing to the best of their ability.

    All 9 of these components are split into two main groups of fitness: Physical fitness refers to the capacity of an athlete to meet the varied physical demands of their sport without reducing the athlete to a fatigued state. These include strength, endurance, speed and flexibility. Or Motor fitness refers to the ability of an athlete to perform successfully at their sport. These include agility, balance, co-ordination and power. For my PEP I will have to choose one of these components for me to concentrate on and improve over the training period.

    • Word count: 4579
  14. Analysis of Performance

    Although Women did have their own games in honour of the god Hera (female god) held in the Olympic stadium. These games consisted of three separate races including a stade race similar to the mens race but shorter. The victors of the Ancient Olympic Games received an olive crown and had a statue erected at Olympia. They were not paid but were treated as celebrities in their local town. In 336 AD the games collapsed after Christian values replaced the pagan values of the games. There were several attempts to create modern Olympic Games including the; 1612 Robert Dover Games and the 1850 Much Wenlock Olympic Games.

    • Word count: 3630
  15. Psychology in Sport: Anxiety, Stress and Sports Performance

    It indicates that high trait anxiety leads to high state anxiety. Where anxiety is an emotional state, it is closely linked to cognitive arousal, usually characterised by feelings of worry, apprehension and psychological tension. According to sports psychologist Speilberger - there are two forms of anxiety: Trait anxiety and State anxiety. Trait Anxiety The official definition of trait anxiety is defined as: " A trait that is enduring in an individual. A performer with high trait anxiety has the predisposition or the potential to react to situations with apprehension."

    • Word count: 4233
  16. PEP The aspect of fitness I am going to develop is strength. This is because my chosen sport, golf, has had rapid improvements in club technology enabling players to hit the ball further.

    And I feel with a fairly intense training plan, specific to improving strength, the length I hit the ball will increase and as a result, my golf will improve. General Fitness: the ability to cope effectively with the stresses of everyday life. Specific Fitness: level beyond general fitness where a greater level of skill is required in order to meet the more specific demand of an activity. Fitness also has both health and skill related aspects. Health related aspects. These include: aerobic capacity, strength, flexibility and body composition.

    • Word count: 9398
  17. Personal exercise plan

    I will be completing my trekking expeditions within college and during my duke of Edinburgh experience outside of college. I have spent a lot of time within a gym, developing variation components of fitness throughout the years such as anaerobic weight lifting, aerobic weightlifting, cardiovascular training and plymetrics. Previous Injuries I have not developed any serious injuries throughout my life, involved within sport. I have not experienced any broken bones or major muscle injuries. I have sustained a minor sprain in my ankle during a Rugby match, however nothing to a degree that would leave me absent from sport over a length of time.

    • Word count: 7862
  18. Stress in Sport

    Distress in football can seriously affect their confidence within the game and their performance however it does depend on the experience, the importance of the competition, the quality of the opposition and the size of the crowds. All of this can affect the footballer by causing them to "freeze" in the game, this is known as when a footballer avoids receiving the ball, dribbling the ball, striking the ball and just general interaction in play. This is because when footballers are stressed they do not have the motivation or fulfilment to perform or carry out the desired actions.

    • Word count: 3217
  19. Synoptic Assignment

    Weaknesses 1. Poor approach when dunking. 2. Poor ball handling skills. 3. Poor jump limits dunking ability. 4. Underperforms in front of larger crowds. 5. Poor free throw percentage. 6. Poor ability to fight through a losing streak to win the game. Strengths 1. Excellent 3-point shot. 2. Excellent court awareness. 3. Strong in defence. 4. Strong offensive/defensive rebounding. Summary This assignment will explain 6 topics from the Sport & PE syllabus explaining how knowing about them will help the performer improve. A poor approach when dunking is due to a lack of guidance, and will be discussed.

    • Word count: 3613
  20. An Investigation Into The Performance Of A Basketball Player

    I selected the major weakness influencing my performer. I selected a form of training to improve it. I listed equipment required to improve it. Week 6 Date: 20/02/07 What I Did I justified the major core Skill weakness of my performer. I also completed a bibliography Sport - Basketball Analysis of Core Skill 1: Passing / receiving a Chest Pass. My Performer: Top level Performer: Preparation: Head: Hands Legs/Feet Result of passes: Receiving a pass: Sport - Basketball Analysis of Core Skill 2: Dribbling / moving with ball with both hands. My Performer: Top level Performer: Right Hand Preparation Head/Eyes Hands Legs/Feet Left Hand Preparation Head/Eyes Hands Legs/Feet Sport - Basketball Analysis of Core Skill 3: Shooting - Lay-ups.

    • Word count: 5739
  21. Sport Synoptic Assignment-Maria Sharapova Evaluation

    Levers are mechanical devices which produce turning motions around a fixed point. Bones act as levers, joints act as fulcrums (a pivot) and the muscle contracts to move the lever. For example when you perform a bicep curl the elbow joint acts as the fulcrum, the muscle (bicep) contracts which allows the lever (bones-ulna and radius) to move. This is an example of a third class lever. Effective and efficient movement occurs as a result of a system of levers. Levers have two main functions- to increase the resistance that a given effort can move and to increase the speed at which the body moves.

    • Word count: 3625
  22. Pe written investigation

    To do this I will use a perfect technical model to compare the video footage too. Week beginning 5th May In this week I intend to evaluate my work. I will also do a bibliography to show the websites and books which helped me. B1 core skill 1 Observation - jumps (straight jump) Performer The performer's body shape was accurate and held together as the arms and legs were stretched and straight. Enough height was gained during the execution to perform the movement effectively.

    • Word count: 3396
  23. National Governing Rules and Regulations - Practical Performance

    The Ball There were recently world wide changes for the size of the ball. It used to have a diameter of 38mm however; they increased this to 40mm. It should also weigh 2.7g. The Table The table should be in a rectangular shape with the dimensions of 9ft long by 5ft wide. The table should be parallel to ground and exactly 2ft 6" above the ground. It should be a uniform, matte colour with a 2cm white line around the outer edge of the table. In a game of doubles there should be a 3mm white line up the centre of the table running parallel to the side lines.

    • Word count: 7907
  24. Sports Technology - Developments

    It is used to reconstruct the game so that every movement, by every player can be seen and their contribution to the game can be measured and analysed. This will enable coaches to recognise areas which the team or individuals need to work on in order to improve. PZ3 consists of a team sheet which allows for the coach to see the starting line up, formations, any substitutions that were made, fouls and cards given and goal scored/assisted. With one click on a player or team they can bring up all the statistical data they want to look at in order for analysis.

    • Word count: 5849
  25. Synoptic essays for swimming.

    Her shorter term goals are to try to make it to every single training session as often as possible so to improve her overall performance. Her longer term goals are to compete in the winter championships and to compete in many more competitions. Finally, Jenna's strengths and weaknesses are shown in the table below: Strengths Weaknesses Breaststroke - Distance of glide. Speed of tumble turns - lacking speed. Diving - Distance made. Susceptible to injuries - Knee and Ankle joints most vulnerable. Determination Weak in backstroke start - Lack of height. Relay change over Team Motivation - During competition environment.

    • Word count: 3515

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?

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