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AS and A Level: Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill

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Writing about ‘Arousal’ in sport

  1. 1 Definitions of arousal may vary, but whichever one you use, you must acknowledge the author and the date it was established. This practice is essential and normal for study in higher education.
  2. 2 Arousal is necessary and ideally is ‘managed’ to maintain ‘optimal’ levels. This means that you are ‘excited’ both cognitively and physiologically enough to be ‘ready’ to perform, but are not overly aroused so much that your performance will deteriorate as a result.
  3. 3 Many questions or assignments will expect you to analyse the 3 key theories of arousal : Drive, Inverted U and Catastrophe Theory. Analysis requires you to present both the credible or advantageous side to the theory AND the less constructive or valuable perspective (ie the good and bad points about it as a theory to explain something).
  4. 4 Theories are JUST that – They are someone’s interpretation or reasoning for something. They will present evidence to support their theory, however, it is possible that another person will disagree and will present a different theory as explanation. When writing ‘critically’ you should be open to exploring, considering and explaining BOTH perspectives.
  5. 5 Drive Theory (Hull, 1951) is the most simplistic and suggested that the more aroused you are, the more likely the dominant response will be performed (this doesn’t matter whether it’s the correct skill or not!)

    The Inverted U hypothesis (Hebb 1957); suggests that performance will increase up til the optimal level of arousal and above that, will ‘gradually’ descrease.

    Catastrophe theory (Fazey and Hardy 1988) develops this, but suggests that arousal above optimal levels will ‘catastrophically’ drop, but can be increased again if cognitive arousal is reduced and controlled.

How to interpret an assignment task or essay title

  1. 1 Understand the question fully BEFORE you write - whichever module topic it is from, the process of preparing and constructing the answer will be similar. It is good practice to interpret the title or question before you think about the answer or writing. Too often, students begin writing and just follow their stream of thought thereafter. This can lead to inconsistencies and disjointed arguments.
  2. 2 • Question analysis – what is the command verb being used. This is the verb that indicates what you have to do to the topic.
  3. 3 Question analysis – Analyse, discuss and evaluate are sometimes prefixed with ‘critically’ – these all require you to consider 2 sides or different perspectives on a topic, with your thoughts and conclusions.
  4. 4 Question analysis – Describe, outline and state are more simplistic and require statements about something. Explain takes this further and requires detail as to WHY you state something; a degree of reasoning.
  5. 5 • Sections of a question – Questions can sometimes require you to respond to more than one command verb and therefore write more than one section as an answer.

Technology in sport

  1. 1 Terminology – Use the appropriate jargon for equipment and facilities (eg: hypoxic or hypobaric chambers for simulated altitude training). This shows a higher level of research and knowledge.
  2. 2 Technology for safety –Many technological developments have intended to ensure the safety of participants and spectators. Sadly, many developments evolve as a result of a tragedy or where there have been problems (eg: a cord attaching runners on a treadmill to cut out the motor if they fall)
  3. 3 Technology for comfort – People of all levels of performance (from recreational to elite) appreciate and will buy equipment and clothing that allows them to train and compete in great comfort.
  4. 4 Technology for performance – There are so many examples of developments that increase an athlete’s performance. These include footwear suitable to different playing surfaces or SZR racing swim suit to reduce friction.
  5. 5 The technological debate – in any ‘critical’ task it should not be assumed that advances in technology are advantageous or appropriate. A higher level student will present arguments that both support and challenge the inclusion of technology in sport.

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  1. fundamentals of fitness

    The success of the YMCA is down to the organisation structure and culture that we provide to our members. It is vital that fitness instructors are qualified in fitness, are great motivators and can adapt their skills with ease. Many of YMCA clients do not know the difference between 'Health' and 'Fitness'. It is important that we all know the correct explanation and the difference of these two in order to establish and achieve our clients goals. A definition of health: "Being alive with no major health problems.

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  2. analysis and performance cricket

    * Power is also required for throwing the ball and playing a variation of shots when batting as the ability to exert maximum muscular contraction in one explosive movement is needed. I explained to my friend that I would be watching his performance during a training session so that I could calculate what sort of level he was playing at. During the session I focused on his abilities in both batting and bowling. I found that he was much better in his abilities to bowl the ball than he was when batting so I decided to analyse his batting technique.

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  3. Fitness entry tests undertook by the Ayrshire fire and rescue service

    The results can also only be valid if the person undertaking the test is stepping up and down in rhythm with the beeps. Reliability: This test is very reliable because if monitored correctly it clearly gives an indication of person's aerobic capacity. Even though it may not be in the right way as stated above. Accuracy: this test is very accurate when it comes to measuring a subject's aerobic capacity it gives a precise reading of there heart rate results because the data is collected as the test is being conducted and the results are worked out accurately on a graph afterwards.

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  4. the lost squatron

    Nicholson grew up in tobacco rich North Carolina back country, and his accent and redneck colloquialisms made training a lot easier for everybody. Nicholson was followed by Andy Grayson, from Wichita, then Angel Fernandez of the Bronx, and finally Ron Fontaine, a graduate of the Donnelly Housing Projects in Detroit. Fontaine was voted by his peers the last person anyone wanted to meet in a back alley for a fight. He was also the most accomplished "stick man" among them.

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  5. Discuss The Differences between Skill, Ability and Technique and Explain How you would structure practices to enhance these components of Fitness

    Perceptual motor skill is a combination of both motor and perceptual skills e.g. passing and receiving a ball in basketball involves muscle movement and adaptation to the pass. There are also classifications of skill: Open skills- skills effected by the environment which involves adaptation e.g. a rugby pass has to be adapted to how fast it's thrown, A closed skill is the opposite. Gross skills involve large muscle movements e.g. 100m sprint involves a burst of muscle energy, fine skills are the opposite of this e.g. snooker. Self-paced skills- are the rate/pace of the skill e.g.

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  6. coaching points and progressive practices

    it very clear to you, how the skill will be carried out and the objectives you need to overcome for it to become an accurate pass. The stages are; preparation, execution, result, recovery and overall efficiency. The aim -The shoulder pass is a useful high pass performed using one hand. It is very direct and can cover much larger distances than a chest pass. This pass should become second nature else it will not work efficiently. So the player must produce a pass that is accurate and powerful enough elude any defenders standing between you and your fellow team members.

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  7. Review the classification of skills to include the differences between individual, coactive and interactive skills. Make reference to an individual, team and racket sport

    But the only disadvantages of the continuums is that one cannot place a skill definitely in one category or the other which means that there is some uncertainty among the classification of skill and this is one of the main reason why there are so many different definitions of what skill is due to different people having different ideas of what skill is. Individual skills are those that the competitor performs alone, without physical presence of the opposition team being involved.

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  8. Personal Exercise Programme

    Strength: - Maximum strength: "to be able to overcome a large resistance in a single contraction" i.e. when driving in a ruck or maul - Elastic strength: "to overcome a resistance rapidly yet prepare the muscle quickly for a sequential contraction" - Strength Endurance: "muscles undergoing repeated contractions and withstanding fatigue" 3. Cardio-respiratory endurance: "the ability to provide and sustain energy aerobically" (related to longer distance events) - this is necessary for a player to keep going for the full 80 minutes 4.

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  9. The Individual Performance Portfolio (IPP)

    Excellent Multi-stage fitness test Level 9 Good Static balance 4 seconds Average In observing the above table it could be said that my body is in fairly good condition. The grip test shows I have a good level of muscular strength compared to the average person of my age. Other results such as chins (muscular strength), vertical jump (power = strength x speed) and multi-stage fitness test (cardiovascular/ muscular endurance) also shows a good consistent level of health related fitness.

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  10. Monitor the development of an athlete.

    My diet is considerable but it is affected by sudden urges for junk food. I will aim to improve my diet, as I believe this is very important in order to maintain a high level of fitness. Also improving my diet, will help me to produce the correct energy needed in order to train and improve rather than burning fat which, even though it is energy, it is not as useful as energy from carbohydrates and proteins. I am aware that in this training programme, results are going to be affected by age, gender and fitness levels, e.g.

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  11. I have set targets for a 16 year old footballer who wants to play professional football when he is older. He is currently the 5 highest scorer in the league and wants to be the top. In his first session with me he scored 4/10 for accurate passing

    I feel in order for the boy to be even considered at a professional or semi professional level he needs to improve heavily. So I Ten weeks I am looking for the following improvements 7/10 for accurate passing 9/10 for heading towards goal 9/10 for 1st time shooting 9/10 for fitness 7/10 for reaction time This how I intend to do it. Accurate passing SMART Target 1 Specific This is the level he is currently at 4/10. We are working toward gaining 7/10 ,by the end of ten weeks Measurable At the end of every week the athlete will be

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  12. Performance Management

    When talking about stress3 we can term it as an impairment of spatial memory formation resulting in poor performance (Holscher, 1999). A poorly performing team member can take up a great deal of the team's time and energy and hence can cause many problems. This will automatically results in poor customer satisfaction which gives high monetary compensation and high level of escalation to supervisors/managers. This chronic pressure also declines the confidence and efficiency leading to a destructive cycle of poor performance.

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  13. Analysing the effects of stress and anxiety on sports performers Stress is basically defined as any influence, which disturbs the natural equilibrium of the body. It is

    Although stress is usually considered to have a negative effect upon a performer that is not always necessarily correct. People often complain about having too much stress or being stressed often directing it to a negative outcome. The stress of competing in a competition often forces sports people who can't handle it to pull out or withdraw from the competition. However certain amounts of stress can actually be a benefit and could help improve a performance as it provides people with the mental and physical energy to motivate themselves into doing things and doing them well.

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    I don't suffer from any major illnesses however I have had asthma since I was young. Sometimes when I do activities that demand a lot from my body I do run short of breath however this doesn't effect me that greatly because I always carry my inhaler with me. Health:- This is the state where you are mentally physically and socially sound and also the body being free of any disorders or diseases. To be mentally healthy your mind is psychologically free from any stress of pressures and the body is content with itself.

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  15. Training can bring about physiological changes to the body which enable us to improve the energy systems therefore the systems can create more ATP for movement. The adaptations which occur affect the systems

    Increasing just one of the three will be making you train harder you needn't increase all of them. Reversibility When a person doesn't train the persons fitness levels will decrease. 'After only two weeks there is a significant reduction in exercise capacity and metabolic capacity' (Lecture Notes, 2005), so working on this basis "If you don't use it, you lose it". 'Even among highly trained athletes, the beneficial effects of prior exercise training are reversible (McArdle, 2005). For every type of exercise an athlete does, you should apply the following: * Frequency How often exercise is done * Intensity How difficult the exercise is * Time The duration of the exercise * Type What kind of exercise it is Cardiovascular Adaptations to endurance training Exercise has a very positive effect on the cardiovascular system.

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  16. How aerobic endurance and strength training create adaptations to the athlete's body and help to improve performance

    Effect on Athlete's Performance: Deoxygenated blood will be able to become oxygenated quicker and more quickly so the working muscles will be supplied with oxygen quicker. Capillaries: The capillaries increase in size allowing blood to travel along them. New capillaries are developed which helps with the extraction of oxygen. The network of capillaries in a muscle increase therefore this increases the supply of blood, oxygen and the nutrients to the working muscle. Effect on Athlete's Performance: Deoxygenated blood will be able to become oxygenated quicker and more quickly so the working muscles will be supplied with oxygen quicker.

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  17. I have been playing football for as long as I can remember and joined a club when I was 12 years old, which was at a competitive Sunday League. I started off playing in defence

    That season we also finished fourth in our league, which was quite poor considering we were top for most of the season. This season 05/06 has been our most successful season because we have been promoted and done well in the spring cup considering we had to play 2nd and 3rd division sides. At my club, we do training twice a week and play a game on Sunday. The two sessions of training last one and a half hours each, Saturday and Thursdays.

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  18. Player has close control of the ball and the ball is constantly close to their feet helping them to have more control over the ball. They are

    Torso: Performers hands are positioned away from her body, this would help her to gain more balance however she is leaning over to one side more and this is causing her to kick the ball to far out. Legs: Performer moved her legs quickly in order to get in line with the ball when receiving from another player. In long passes she followed through well using the inside of her left foot which seems to be her strongest. However when using her right foot for the same skill she does not perform so well and accuracy and power is lost.

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  19. Aim: to plan, perform, monitor and evaluate a 10-week training program for a specific sport and position, which will improve individuals fitness. To develop two aspects of my fitness to improve my performance in Netball

    Balance: the ability to maintain equilibrium when stationary or moving. As I am unable to move with the ball, I will need to be able to keep balance whilst intercepting the ball when moving; therefore needing to maintain full balance. Co-ordination: the ability to carry out a series of movement smoothly and efficiently. I will need to be able to take shots at the goal post; at the right angle, time and with the right amount of power. I will have to make sure the timing of the shot is correct, as I do not want the defender to be getting in the way of the shot.

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  20. Analysis of Performance football

    Write up justification and focus on developments. B- Observation: B1 Core skill 1: Passing, Receiving and Control. Pupil Accurate passing, using full body and follows through for flat and lofted passes. Allowing time for each pass, leading to accurate passes. When receiving the ball her foot is too high, she also tries to control the ball with her toe. She is finding it hard to stop the ball with her left foot. Technical Model: Brazil: 1970 World Cup Making passes to players that are free, this therefore creates a space. Allowing full control of the ball before passing it onto another player.

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  21. Personal Exercise Programme - Football

    - hold the grip dynometer above your head and squeeze whilst bringing your arm to your side. This test is not very relevant to goal keeping as strength is used throughout the body and not just in the hands > Power(Legs) - Standing Long Jump, stand still feet together and jump double footed and measure the distance jumped from the heels. This test has some relevance as when jumping to take a cross goalkeepers jump straight up in the air, but the test still uses the leg muscles. > Co-ordination - The number of times you can throw a tennis ball against a wall using alternate hands in 30 seconds.

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  22. Which is more effective at improving performance, positive or negative feedback?

    Negative This form of feedback must be used cautiously, as too much can prove de-motivating and lead to a decline in performance, as well as commenting on what areas of technique are incorrect, it should also include some guidance as to how best to improve on this. It is most effective with more expert performers as it will allow them to fine-tune any slight errors in technique that may be holding them back, without the danger of them becoming disheartened as many beginners may.

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  23. Negative self-thoughts

    The next time, past experience will show that they fail therefore will have even less self-confidence. The negative and lack of self-confidence will be represented in performance and the player has virtually lost the match before they have even begun. In this situation a coach needs to break the cycle. The player needs to develop confidence and begin to expect to win. This is linked to learned helplessness where an athlete has 'learnt' that they won't be able to succeed so won't succeed. Confidence results from the comparison an athlete makes between the goal and their ability.

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  24. Discuss the role of feedback in the learning of skills

    This means when this or a similar situation occurs again we can use past feedback to help in the decision making process to make the skill more successful. The long-term memory store has a potentially unlimited capacity and duration for information. Movement patterns learnt from the performance of skills are held in the long-term memory store, as well as previous experiences, actions and results. In a sporting situation the decision process is determined by feedback from the success or failure of previous experiences.

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  25. In this task the performance demands of an elite athlete will be closely looked at, the athlete that I have chosen is Frank Lampard who plays centre midfield for Chelsea football club

    2005 FIFA PRO World XI - 2005, Barclays award for first to score 10 premiership goals - season 2005/06, Barclays Special Merit Award for Most Consecutive Premiership Appearances (www.franklampard.net) these are just a few of his achievement on a personal level also with his club Chelsea he has won the premiership title and this season Chelsea are again top of the league so there aim is to the same again. Performance demands for football Physiological- stamina, power, speed, agility, flexibility Listed above are the main physiological performance demands of a footballer, obviously the demands will vary with the position of

    • Word count: 1051

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