• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Student Roll Number = 00154481 BA (hons) Social Work - Part Time YEAR 2 - INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE Select a developmental or psychological theory/perspective that helps your understanding of people and their circumstances and informs your understanding of social work practice in a multi-cultural society. Summarise the main features of the theory and outline its strengths and weaknesses. Discuss, with example(s) about a particular life stage or event, in what ways the theory has applications for social work practice. Introduction This assignment will examine infant attachment, concentrating, in the main, on Bowlby's Theory of Attachment (1951) in order to examine the topic in some depth within the limited word count. Whilst aware that a number of people have written on this subject, such as, Ainsworth et al (1978), Fahlberg (1988), Howe (1995), Klaus and Kennell (1976), Rutter (1974) and Weiss (1991), the theory was originally developed by John Bowlby who has been described as 'the father of attachment theory' (Beckett, 2006. p.49) and it was for this reason that Bowlby's theory was chosen. The essay will briefly describe Bowlby's theory and critique its strengths and weaknesses, in addition examples from social work will be interwoven throughout the essay focussing on anti-discriminatory practice. The theory will be applied to practice using examples referring to particular life stages or life events. ...read more.

Middle

He felt that this will be carried through to later life and inform future relationships. It is here where Bowlby puts forward the connection between attachment and the development of individual personalities (Beckett, 2006). Confidence in the availability of an attachment figure, or lack of it, is built up slowly during the years of immaturity - infancy, childhood and adolescence - and.... whatever expectations are developed during those years tend to persist relatively unchanged throughout the rest of life' (Bowlby, 1998a. p245). In order to recognise whether or not an infant has a secure relationship with their caregiver, Bowlby introduced the "Internal Working Model" (Bowlby, 1997). This consists of two sub models, the 'self' and 'other'. It suggests that when a child has a secure attachment with its caregiver, it sees itself as worthy of attention and love. The infant also sees the caregiver as someone who meets their needs. Whereas, if an infant has an insecure attachment, it would see itself as unworthy of attention and the caregiver as unreliable in meeting its needs (ibid). Strengths Bowlby's work was very influential in making a number of positive changes in dealing with the care of children, for example, parents in the 1950's and 1960's were requested not to visit their children in hospital as it was upsetting for the child, however, Bowlby's work regarding the three stages of separation 'Protest, Despair and Denial' demonstrated ...read more.

Conclusion

The twins were taken away and placed in an orphanage, where it was discovered that they demonstrated severe developmental problems including poor locomotion, own unique language of communication between themselves, refusal to be separated, incapable of forming relationships and intellectually immaturity. Over the next four years, their mental capabilities and language skills developed, their intelligence became average and social development improved. The Koluchova twins cast severe doubt on the evidence of 'critical periods' because they recovered and led a normal life. Conclusion In conclusion, Bowlby's work has been very influential on children and care giving. Although it is not without its faults, not least of which is its emphasis on placing the role of carer exclusively on the biological mother to the detriment of equally effective care givers. However, his theory has also influenced child care in many positive ways. Children are now encouraged to have hospital visits by parents, overnight day care has been reduced with children now being preferably placed in foster care with a view to continuity and long term goals. It would appear that Bowlby's work was a product of the time in which he studied, but the importance of early attachment and continuity of care cannot be faulted and his studies have since been developed and refined to fit in with other theorists and ideologists. However, it can still be clearly seen that John Bowlby was indeed the father of Attachment Theory. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Developmental Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Developmental Psychology essays

  1. counselling stages of attachement

    * By the age of 4, 24 of the children had been adopted, (group 1) and 15 had returned to their natural homes, (group 2) and the rest (group 3) remained in the home. Conclusions - * They concluded that the harmful effects of privation can be overcome to some extent through sensitive and consistent care (e.g.

  2. c hallenging a client to change

    - Skilful frustration; In this the therapist: - Repeatedly frustrates client's avoidance of uncomfortable situations, until they show willingness to try and cope. - Helps client's to identify the characteristics they project on to others that are most missing in themselves.

  1. Attachment and Bonding

    Alongside this theory it is believed that if good attachments are made it will provide the basis for healthy emotional and social development in later life. (Mussen et al,1984) There are similarities between these three theories, the most prominent one is that for any kind of species, whether it be

  2. impact of dicriminatory practice

    This could lead to the child feeling lonely, un-supported, isolated and their behaviour and attitude towards others, as explained could change as a result. Children could become withdrawn and regress, feel worthless, have a low self-esteem, low confidence levels all-round, and possibly emotionally unstable.

  1. It has been established that human social development depends in a fundamental way on ...

    then the child's ability to form attachments would be irretrievably damaged and behavioural problems would occur. Criticisms were levelled at Bowlby's theories due to his ideas stemming from work he had undertaken with juvenile delinquents that had been separated early in life from their mothers as being unrepresentative of the general population, and too small a sample.

  2. Key features of infants first relationships giving the importance of each of these features ...

    However, for this meshing to be able to take place there has to be an opportunity for it to happen. Research has shown that all human infants feed in a unique rhythm, which is apparent from birth. They suck for a while, pause for a few seconds then resume sucking.

  1. Investigate the stages that infants go through when developing attachments.

    He thought this would often lead to a life of crime. * Affectionless psychopathy Bowlby decided involves a lack of guilt and remorse, and little sense of social responsibility. People suffering from it act impulsively, with little regard for the consequences of their actions.

  2. Contribution and cultural conditions that gave rise to the biological perspective.

    The second group experienced changing emotions, they experienced anger and happines. Even without knowing that they got adrenaline. They though it is some kind of drug but what kind of drug they did not know. And the third group had no significant change in emotions.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work