Outline the influence of childhood experiences on adult relationships.
Bowlby believed that the type of relationship an individual has with their primary caregiver as an infant, will predict their future relationships as an adult, i.e. the continuity hypothesis. He argued that this first relationship provides a basis, so in essence, acts as a template or an internal working model for future relationships. Using Ainsworth’s findings of the strange situation, the hypothesis suggests that the child’s attachment classification may influence their popularity with peers. If they are securely attached then they should be more confident and thus more popular. This can also be used for adolescent relationships. Those who are securely attached will find it easier to make friends and have intimate friendships, whereas insecurely attached individuals will find it harder to do this so may be more socially awkward and tend to be alone or have one or two friends. Furthermore in adult romantic relationships, Hazan and Shaver (1987) through their ‘Love Quiz’, found a strong positive correlation between childhood attachment type and adulthood attachment type. The findings showed that secure people should find it in their nature to trust their partner and their relationships will be long lasting as they do believe in true love. Insecure people won’t trust their partner and their relationship won’t last as long as they don’t know if they believe that true love exists.
Outline and evaluate evolutionary explanations of parental investment.
The evolutionary explanation of parental investment (PI) believe that parents will invest in their children in various ways, for example, give them food, shelter and basically protect them from anything that could be dangerous.
The investment was defined by Trivers in 1972 as: ‘Any investment by a parent in an offspring that increases the chance that the offspring will survive at the expense of the parent’s ability to invest in any other offspring (alive or test to be born)’. The amount of parental investment will be different between males and females.