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AS and A Level: Hinduism

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  1. Problems that sikhs face practicing their religion in Britain today

    Like some other religions, Sikhs are often discriminated against in Britain today. The war on Iraq brings with it an increase in hostility towards those who wear turbans making it hard for some Sikhs to show pride in their religious clothing. The turban has become an important symbol of the Sikh faith. Most Sikh men wear a turban as well as some Sikh women. Sikhs may experience slurs, isolation, hostility and sometimes even assaults just because of their appearance. Many British people are racists and are unable to accept anybody who are of a different race, this must make it very hard for Sikhs to feel normal and at ease in the place that they live.

    • Word count: 1188
  2. b) Why is the worship of Rama popular with devotees? (12)

    Such morals include how to follow dharma regardless of the circumstances. Jamison explains this as "Rama is put forward as the perfect example of dharma in action, the exemplar of righteous behaviour." Rama is also popular to be worshipped because he and Sita are thought to be the embodiment of the perfect relationship and Zaehner explains that "The perfect relationship of husband and wife is illustrated by the relationship of Rama and Sita." Statues of Rama and Sita are often found in shrines and temples.

    • Word count: 1005
  3. How observing a visible religious activity can help you to understand the part religion plays in the life of an individual or community

    This is called Tarpan. The Second stage is when the Goddess arrives from heaven, amidst a terrific flourish of drums. The main ritual of this stage is unveiling the face of the idol, often modelled on a popular actress. After this there is the worshipping of nine types of plants. Worshipped together, they are a symbol of the Goddess. This is followed by a day beginning with Sanskrit hymns - Sanskrit being the classical language of India, and liturgical language of Hinduism - while thousands gather as a community.

    • Word count: 1393
  4. What is meant by "Karma"?

    Our actions can have a direct effect on someone in our present life for example if the poor person were to steal from the rich person that would result in the rich person feeling pain, Dukkha (suffering) would have been inflicted upon them. However if the rich person who has been wronged were to seek revenge for the damage the poor person has caused, that would result in accumulating bad Karma also. Buddhists believe that a person's action moulds their consciousness and the fact that they have free will allows them to be, as Buddha said, "heirs of our own

    • Word count: 1991
  5. What, according to scholars, were the characteristics of the Indus Valley Civilisation? Discuss the possible influence of this civilisation In Hindu thought and culture

    There are two main centres of the civilisation, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa. Harappa lies in Punjab Pavina, and Mohenjo-daro lies further down the valley. Archaeological evidence has pointed to the possibility that both cities are believed to have held over 40,000 inhabitants, who had a relatively high standard of living. These cities had a uniform structure. They were divided into two, the lower city, holding the main population, and a fortified citadel. The citadel was the economic and political centre of the city, in Mohenjo-daro and Harappa they were possibly the centres of the civilisation.

    • Word count: 1995
  6. Describe the presentation of the soul in the Katha Upanishad.

    The Upanishad aims to answer questions that Hindus might have about the soul. Firstly, the Katha Upanishad answers where atman dwells. Chapter two informs the reader that the soul is "set in the heart of every creature" and "hidden in all beings". This suggests that atman is in every living creature and not just human beings. This could also support the idea of reincarnation in that atman is "unborn" and "eternal" and so is transported from physical body to physical body, human or animal. Chapter four also suggests where atman physically dwells, which is that "spirit the size of a thumb, lives in the middle of one's soul".

    • Word count: 1061
  7. "It is essential for Hinduism to reform but the most important issue was the nature of the reformation" Discuss this claim with reference to the activities and teachings of A) Ramakrishna and B) Daynanda Sarasvati.

    God in the form of the saint, God in the form of the sinner, God in the form of the righteous, God in the form of the unrighteous." For Ramakrishna all the religion led to the same destination. This has become one of the modern principles of Hinduism today. Ideas such as these have allowed Hinduism to stand the test of time and allow many different ways of thinking to be absorbed into Hinduism and therefore survive the wave of western influence. However Daynanda imposed a monotheistic belief in God and relied only on the Vedas as being truly authentic.

    • Word count: 1584
  8. Evaluate and analyse the contributions of Ramakrishna to the modern development of Hinduism?

    Ramakrishna from an early age became infatuated with the goddess Kali and had many visions of her. This affected his attitude towards all females. His relation with kali was a mother and son relationship, which he developed with his wife by taking a vow of chastity towards the end of his life. This helped to lift the social view of women considering them saintly and of religious significance rather than as a s****l object. For him, there was no one truth.

    • Word count: 1254
  9. Why did Hinduism need to reform?

    Furthermore, when the British Invaded they brought with them protestant Christianity as practised in Portugal. Along with them came the missionaries, which again imposed a monotheistic tradition. Missionaries were particularly critical about Hindu's for the diverse beliefs about God and their view on afterlife (the process of samsara) Missionaries have said to have baptised literally millions of Hindu's at this time. In addition, missionaries also opened schools, built churches and translated scriptures into Hindi. British Colonialism made a significant impact upon the asian sub continent. Traditions such a sati were made illegal straight away which restricted some of their religious values, especially in upper class Brahmin villages.

    • Word count: 1348
  10. Examine the ways in which the Bhagavad-Gita supports the life of duty and action rather than of renunciation.

    Krishna says "You sorrow for men who do not need your sorrow and yet speak words that in part are wise. Wise men do not sorrow for the living or the dead". Krishna also talks to Arjuna about the Undying self to persuade him even more that action is the right option to take. He says, "As a man casts off his worn-out clothes and takes another new ones, so does the embodied self-cast off its worn out bodies and enter other new one".

    • Word count: 1515
  11. Hinduism and Drug Abuse

    Living or acting in the right way is known as dharma. Every Hindu has a purusharthas, or life goal, and leading a pure life through purity of body and mind is very important so that they are able to carry out their religious duties. To reach their individual goal they must create good Karma through control over gratification of the senses; pleasure; sensual, s****l, and mental enjoyment. The Laws of Manu are guidelines for a pure life and describe the perfect man as: 'He who has perfect 3 fold control: that is control over speech, thought and actions.'

    • Word count: 1442

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • "It is essential for Hinduism to reform but the most important issue was the nature of the reformation" Discuss this claim with reference to the activities and teachings of A) Ramakrishna and B) Daynanda Sarasvati.

    "In conclusion the nature of reformation differed between Ramakrishna and Daynanda depending on how they viewed Hinduism. For Ramakrishna, the nature of reform needed to be directed towards the re discovery of the self. Whereas for Daynanada, the nature of reform concerned social and political reform in order to preserve the real Hinduism. Therefore it can be seen that the nature of Ramakrishna's reform was a much more tolerant, plural and liberal one. However it did nit contain all the elements for a reformation that preserved Hinduism. Daynanda's nature of reformation directed Hindu to the original truth and stripped off all the extra features that were restricting the progress of Hinduism. He advocated the education of women, belief in one God and re defining of the caste system. This was all very appropriate since he thought that religion has much more to offer than just a system to channel religious beliefs. This shows that the nature of the reform was very important since reform itself was inevitable anyway. 1 Klaus Klosterimeir 2"

  • What, according to scholars, were the characteristics of the Indus Valley Civilisation? Discuss the possible influence of this civilisation In Hindu thought and culture

    "In conclusion, the Indus Valley religion does seem to have similarities to modern Hinduism. However, it must be remembered that scholars who seeks links between the Indus Valley and modern Hinduism may be blinded by their search to the facts that suggest otherwise. Throughout humanity there are key features in religion that are universally applied, they all depend on the circumstances of the human and any similarities or link may be the result of coincidence rather than a direct link. However, it is entirely possibly that there may have been a cultural synthesis between the Aryans and the Indus, through interbreeding, which allows ideas to continue and possibly leak into the Vedas. But this is speculation and will probably not be confirmed until the decipherment of the hieroglyphs until then it depends on the perception of the scholar. 1 Hopkins, The Hindu Religious Tradition 2 An Introduction to Hinduism 3 Early India- Indus Valley Civilisation 4 Flood 5 Ancient Civilisations 6 Cotterell"

  • Evaluate and analyse the contributions of Ramakrishna to the modern development of Hinduism?

    "In conclusion I feel that Ramakrishna to a large extent has made little contribution towards enhancing the development of Hinduism, mainly as most of his ideas have failed to reform Hindu thinking. Furthermore, from a Brahmin perspective I believe that his ideas undermine the superiority of Hindu teachings. Although he stated that Hinduism was the mother of all religions, he did not actively promote Hindusim or enhance its own development. More significantly Ramakrishna himself did not affect Hinduism but instead it was his disciple Vivekenanda who put forward theory unanimity. 1 Ramakrishna class notes. 2 Steven Cross 3 W owen cole. Introduction to Hinduism 4 History of World Religions Danziel 5 Klaus K Klostermier n:\mywork\rs\hinduism\ramak contribution.doc 02/05/07 97aftab"

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