How plants have adapted or become acclimated to shade conditons.
Noreen Mc Quaid U5400636 TMA 05 Question 2 HOW PLANTS HAVE ADAPTED OR BECOME ACCLIMATED TO SHADE CONDITIONS. Conditions of shade present low average light intensity for plants, along with a difference in the quality of light (in terms of the numbers of quanta of different wavelengths). Shade light contains more far-red and infra-red quanta and fewer quanta in the range 400 - 680nm. Additionally, light quality and quantity can vary enormously and rapidly due to the occurrence of sunflecks, (a valuable source of light, yet potentially damaging.) Adaptation to shade conditions can be determined genetically or be due to acclimation. Obligate shade plants have evolved genetically to exist in permanent shade and cannot acclimate to long-term levels of high light intensity. However there are plants that show an element of phenotypic plasticity and can acclimate to low (and others to high) light intensities. * Shade plants can absorb and utilize low light intensities more efficiently than sun plants; they have a lower light compensation point and achieve net carbon fixation at lower light fluxes. It is their structural and biochemical characteristics which facilitate these properties. * At a structural level, shade plants have thinner leaves, with a shallow layer of palisade mesophyll and patchy spongy mesophyll containing more air spaces. They have fewer cells per unit area
Writing to describe.
Writing to describe As i jumped off of the plane in Florida i immediately felt the warm tropical air slide over my skin . My body was already tingling with excitement about the holiday i was about to embark on . As the coach left the space-age airport my mum , my sister and I were full of energy . Despite being on a plane for 7 hours we were very excited . As we pulled up to the Magical Kingdom Hotel I sensed that we may be arriving in some sort of dream world . The buildings were similar to those written about in fairytales . Castles were surrounded by dragons breathing fire and goblins laughing like hyenas ! The lights glistened like the sea does when moonlight is reflected off of the water . Fireworks exploded in the air creating a fountainlike shower of colour . We were taken to our hotel rooms by Mickey mouse and Donald Duck! They looked so much bigger in real life . My little sister was so happy that she looked as though she was going to burst with excitement . I had a warm feeling inside that told me that i was in some sort of fantasy world where only happiness existed . The hotel was spacious and the food was delicious . We couldnt have asked for anything better . I was in heaven. The experience got even better as we spent our first day in one of the parks at Disneyland . We started in the Magical Kingdom as it was nearest to
Epping Forest Biology Field Study
Epping Forest Biology Field Study Study: Is Trentepholia aurea growth affected by aspects of a tree? Background Information: Oak trees are occasionally covered on one side, with an orange looking substance. This is due to the presence of a simple alga called Trentepholia aurea (Trentepholiaceae). It is made up of filaments of cells that contain high concentrations of carotene, giving it the bright orange colour. Hypothesis: The Trentepholia aurea will be found on the north side of trees, as this is where they receive the least amount of direct sunlight. Null Hypothesis: Trentepholia aurea is not affected by aspects of a tree. Variables: Dependent Variable - I am measuring the percentage cover of Trentepholia aurea on four different aspects of a tree (North, south, east & west) Independent Variable - The dependant variable will be plot against the aspect of the tree. Control Variable Affect on results Means of monitoring control Oak tree Different types of trees may encourage a faster Trentepholia aurea growth rate than others. Ensure only algae on Oak trees are recorded. Temperature Warmer temperatures promote growth of living things more than cooler temperatures, therefore increases rate of Trentepholia aurea growth. Thermometer Light intensity Living plants need sunlight in order to grow. Therefore light will further the growth of Trentepholia aurea.
the effect of ethanol on the rate of anaerobic respiration
The effect of ethanol on the rate of anaerobic respiration of glucose by yeast Aim: This is an experiment to investigate the six different ethanol concentrations on the time for the mixture containing glucose, yeast, ethanol an alkaline phenolphthalein to decolourise. Background theory: Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. It is perhaps the most useful yeast owing to its use since ancient times in baking and brewing. It is believed that it was originally isolated from the skins of grapes (one can see the yeast as a component of the thin white film on the skins of some dark-colored fruits such as plums; it exists among the waxes of the cuticle). Glucose molecules contain energy. The energy in glucose originally came from sunlight which was captured by chlorophyll molecules and used to make glucose in photosynthesis. If glucose is placed in oxygen and set alight, it burns vigorously. Large amounts of heat energy are released as the glucose molecules combine with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water, and the energy from the glucose is rapidly transferred to heat energy. As this oxygen comes from the air, the process is called aerobic respiration. When oxygen isn't available, oxidative phosphorylation and the Krebs cycle cannot take place. This is also true in organisms or cells which do not contain the machinery to carry these out. In these
An investigation into the energy value of biscuits.
An investigation into the energy value of biscuits We are trying to find out which biscuit out of digestive, low fat and Tesco value has the most energy in it. Prediction: The biscuit that has the most fats and carbohydrates should have the most energy. The 7 different food groups are: Fats, Proteins, Carbohydrates, Vitamins, Minerals, Fibre and Water. Proteins are used for growth and repair. Carbohydrates are used for energy supply. Fats are used as a store of energy, which you use if your body runs out of Carbohydrates. Vitamins are only needed in small amounts; they keep many vital processes happening, they are also used by the body to run its chemical reactions. Minerals are needed for healthy blood, teeth/bones and nerves, they also are needed to run the chemical reactions of the cells. Fibre is needed to help the food move through the digestive system, and to feed the bacteria that live on the complex carbohydrates that make up the fibres in the large intestine. These bacteria are very important, and if they are not kept healthy, bad disease causing bacteria can take over the intestinal tract and cause gastro-intestinal disease and cancers. Waters are the main solvent for food to dissolve in and to be carried around the body. Most of the human body is made up of water. Carbohydrates and Fats give us energy. The process by which they do this is respiration. Every cell
What is Renewable Energy?
Renewable Energy What is Renewable Energy? Renewable energy means it comes from a source that's constantly renewed - the wind keeps blowing, the sun keeps shining, and the Earth keeps heating underground rocks. This energy will be around for as long as the Earth is, so we don't have to worry about running out of it. And renewable energy sources are also usually less pollutant. There are seven sources of renewable energy: * Solar Energy * Biomass * Wind Energy * Wave Energy * Hydro-electric Energy * Tidal Energy * Geothermal Energy Solar Energy Solar energy is energy taken from the sun's rays. The amount of energy that falls from the sun each day can reach the amount of energy used in total around the world per year. The sun's rays have a low energy density so large panels and collecting devices must be used to gather the energy and convert it into electricity. Solar heating Have you ever sat in a car that was closed up on a sunny day? Did you notice how hot it was in the car? This warmth is just one example of solar heating. We can use the sun to heat other things, including our homes. Today, more than 200,000 houses in the United States have been designed to use features that take advantage of the sun's energy. These homes often use passive solar designs, which do not normally require pumps, fans, or other mechanical equipment to store and distribute the sun's
Malnutrition occurs when the body does not get enough vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients it needs to maintain healthy tissues and organ function. Both undernourished and over-nourished people can suffer from malnutrition.
Causes of Malnutrition Malnutrition is a condition where the diet is not balanced resulting with a deficiency disease. It happens worldwide but can be more common to developing countries, as economic, social, cultural and environmental conditions all have an influence Malnutrition is a broad term which refers to both under nutrition and over nutrition. Individuals are malnourished or suffer from under nutrition if their diet does not provide them with sufficient calories and protein for maintenance and growth or they cannot fully utilize the food they eat due to illness. People are malnourished or suffer from over nutrition if they consume too many calories. Malnutrition occurs when the body does not get enough vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients it needs to maintain healthy tissues and organ function. Both undernourished and over-nourished people can suffer from malnutrition. Under nutrition is a consequence of consuming too few essential nutrients or using or excreting them more rapidly than they can be replaced. Insufficient food intake is the most common cause of malnutrition worldwide. In some areas, cultural and religious food customs may play a role. Inadequate sanitation further endangers children by increasing the risk of infectious diseases that increase nutritional losses and alters metabolic demands. People who are chronically malnourished lack the
'What are the differences between Hetrophic & Autotrophic nutrition'?
A Level Biology Essay 'What are the differences between Hetrophic & Autotrophic nutrition' One of the seven processes carried out by all living organisms, nutrition occurs in both plants and animals. However, the methods they both use are very different. Autotrophic nutrition is in its simplest terms is being able to feed oneself and synthesise ones own food from simpler molecules. Hetrophic nutrition however, is the opposite, unable to synthesise its own food. Immediately, one notices which of the categories each the plants and animals fall into. It is important to stress that Autotrophic nutrition lays down the building blocks of life and provides complex organic molecules for the consumption of Hetrophic organisms. Without Autotrophic nutrition, there would be no life. Autotrophic nutrition falls on two levels. Light energy used in photosynthesis and chemical energy for processes involving chemosynthesis. Essentially plants survive on the products of photosynthesis and depend upon the power of the sun to help produce these foods. There are a number of physiological functions in plants, which also help the process of photosynthesis. In order for these organisms to achieve Autotrophic nutrition, they must gather together many raw materials from its environment for photosynthesis to occur. Plants require a source of carbon dioxide and water, chlorophyll to collect
Harmful Effects of the Agent
Introduction Fast food is one of the world's fastest growing food types and it is continuously expanding. But some of the most rapid growth is occurring in the developing world, where it's radically changing the way people eat. People buy fast food because it's cheap, quick, and heavily promoted. But its benefits can be deceptive. Meals devoured in the car or at our desks are replacing homecooked fare enjoyed with family and friends. Around the world, traditional diets and recipes are yielding to sodas, burgers, and other highly processed and standardized items that are high in fat, sugar, and salt-fuelling a global epidemic of obesity, diabetes, and other chronic illnesses. Those in less of a hurry are finding alternatives. Fresh organic foods are increasingly popular in Europe, Japan, and the United States. And a "slow food" movement to promote appreciation of food and the cultural experience of shared meals is becoming widespread worldwide. Fast Food Modern commercial fast food is often highly processed and prepared in an industrial fashion, i.e. on a large scale with standard ingredients and standardised cooking and production methods. It is usually prepared and served very rapidly in cartons or bags or in a plastic wrapping, in a fashion which minimizes costs. Menu items are generally made from processed ingredients prepared at a central supply facility and then
I will be comparing two ponds with different amount and variety of species in them. During this field trip the independent variable will be the different ponds (i.e. Peter's pond and Bay Pond) and the dependent variable
Bay Pond Field Trip Investigation Planning: Aim: To compare the diversity and amount of organisms in two different ponds (Peter's Pond and Bay Pond). Variables: I will be comparing two ponds with different amount and variety of species in them. During this field trip the independent variable will be the different ponds (i.e. Peter's pond and Bay Pond) and the dependent variable will be the number of species and organisms in the two ponds. In addition, I will be looking at the pH, temperature, depth and the turbidity of the pond (the abiotic factors) to see whether these aspects have an effect on the presence of the organisms as I predict that there will be a relationship occurring. To make it a fair test, I will be performing the sweeps consistently, making sure that the technique that I use is constant so that it will be fair, I will also control the time, date and place (i.e. near reeds, in open water etc.) in which the procedure is taking place. Prediction: I predict that the pond with the lower turbidity will contain a wider diversity and broader amount of organisms than the pond with the higher level of turbidity. This is because as one pond has a higher level of turbidity, the murkier and dirtier the water is and this increases when there is a lot of solids in the water and in this case it is due to a large number of carp in the pond. When there are a lot of