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AS and A Level: Work & Leisure

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 2
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  1. Outline some of the ways in which some marketisation and selection policies may produce social class differences in educational achievement.

    Silt-shifting is when a school off-loads pupils with learning difficulties who are expensive to teach and so get poor results. This benefits middle class pupils as all the troublesome students are removed from their school it means the teachers have more time for them to improve their grades thus making the school more popular because of their rank in the league tables then letting them cream-skim thus improving the school further. Consequently, this means the less successful schools have the less able, working class students putting them in a spiral of decline.

    • Word count: 971
  2. Outline and evaluate the view that changes in the workplace have threatened the social roles and identities of men in society.

    Due to this men may feel like they are losing their hegemonic masculinity as they are not seen as the 'Breadwinners' within their families. Also with the fact jobs are now open to both types of gender that there is an equal chance that a woman may be managing a group of men which could lead to men getting depression as due to the culture they were brought up in it could be demeaning to them and lead to them thinking they are not suitable men

    • Word count: 581
  3. American values identified by sociologist Robin Williams

    Paula Dean has achieved success (Achievement & Success) this depictment had a symbol of America, the flag, red, white and blue, stars and stripes (Freedom and Liberty) this wasn't the only advertisement with this American value theme behind or involved in the text, there was a medical ad for breathing medicine (Science and Technology)

    • Word count: 379
  4. Free essay

    Religion as a Conservative Force

    The Catholic church is still incredibly prominent and important within many countries and so they view that religion is a conservative force is still true. When discussing whether religion is a conservative force it is really a discussion about different religious institutions being conservative. Within Christianity, different churches and interpretations differ greatly regarding being conservative or progressive. In its day, Protestantism was a very progressive force and Catholicism was very conservative, even though they both were Christian churches they were either conservative or progressive.

  5. Marxist Perspective on Religion

    In the Munich Treaty of 1938, Allies attempted to join together and agree upon the terms of German expansion. They were anxious of Hitler's increasing power and influence and wanted to restrict the growth of the German empire, whilst also appeasing Hitler in order to prevent war. Allies agreed to allow Germany to take over the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia, but pledged to guarantee the borders of Poland, Greece and Romania. When in 1939, Germany invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia, the allies did not retaliate, therefore did not offer a resistance to German expansion, this would have assured Hitler that expansion into Poland was unlikely to be opposed.

    • Word count: 832
  6. Using information from the items and elsewhere, assess the Marxist view that education benefits the ruling class

    However, it is also suggested that students learn an element of powerlessness in this way as they are rarely given a voice, whilst it is arguable that in the world of work and indeed as adults, a person does get to have more say in what goes on around them. The hidden curriculum goes beyond this and also suggests an acceptance of inequality and that some students are brighter than others, preparing them to accept this view in society too.

    • Word count: 935
  7. Using material from Item B and elsewhere, asses the view that changes in the law are the main cause of increases in the divorce rate.

    There are now 50 times more divorces each year then there were in 1921. Since the Divorce Reform Act of 1969, divorce has been granted by 'irretrievable breakdown' and since 1984 couples have been able to divorce after the 1st year of marriage, this gives people the right to divorce and if they have the option to do so they will at times for the easy way out. Since the Second World War, divorces began to increase drastically, this is a result of women becoming more economically independent when there husbands went off to fight in the war.

    • Word count: 837
  8. Examine the reasons for changes in the patterns of marriage, cohabitation and divorce in the last 30 years.

    Families have changed in the last several decades. Instead of getting married, many people are living together or cohabiting. Some of these cohabitating couples eventually get married. Many of them break up. Very few stay together as cohabitants for long. The decline in marriage has been parallel with the rise in non marital cohabitation. In the mid-1960s, only five per cent of single women lived with a man before getting married, by the 1990s, about 70 per cent did. Some people think that living together will lead automatically to marriage, but that is not often the case.

    • Word count: 902
  9. Functions of the family for individuals and for society

    According to Marxist-feminists, women serve in the family to support the interests of capitalists by : looking after the male workers, rearing children and acting like a reserve pool of labour. In general, Marxism demonstrates how the family functions to support and maintain capitalism. This is explained in the base/superstructure metaphor that Marxists believe. This is where the base which is the economy, shapes and determines the ideological super structures that are around it. These consist of capitalism education, politics and laws.

    • Word count: 691
  10. Free essay

    This essay discusses the functionalist and Marxist approach to the relationship between education and economy.

    There are three related allocation roles: which are the socialisation role, the allocation role and the vocational role. The socialisation role argues that schools and training acts as a form of secondary socialisation that follows primary socialisation within the family. Both Durkheim and Parsons claim that education functions to maintain social stability and cohesion by transmitting socially agreed norms and values through both the "formal" and "hidden" curriculum. For example, schools insist on a "work ethic" into individuals and provides them with basic skills of numeracy and literacy that are essential for a modern industrial economy. The vocational role outlined a variant of functionalism called human capital theory.

    • Word count: 974
  11. Q. Describe the employment opportunities for women at the outbreak of war in 1914?

    So if a girl wanted higher education it either meant paying school fees or winning a scholarship. The other problem facing young women was that society thought that a woman's job was to get married and have children and because they didn't need an education for that they thought that it was not necessary. After all that if a young woman decided to further herself and won a scholarship, her parents would still refuse because it meant that they would lose the wages that she got.

    • Word count: 720
  12. The Aims of Education

    Life itself is a process of education, and its lessons may be well or badly learned. The various processes of teaching and learning can be inferred from the nature of education. Education is concerned with character development. The aims of education should be determined by the needs of the individual. Education can be either formal or non-formal. The family constitutes the main source of knowledge as it has the greatest influence on the children in their early stages of acquiring knowledge and mother tongue.

    • Word count: 414
  13. Describe the employment oppurtunities for women at the outbreak of the war in 1914...

    Domestic Service employed thousands of unmarried women, but a few women had better paid jobs, like factory or shop work. Domestic service employed many of the working class in the early 20th century. The job provided a very clear career structure; you could start off as a scullery maid, and progress to a lady's maid, who would be at the beck and call of the mistress, or perhaps eventually to house keeper who would organize the other staff. The advantages of working in domestic service were that all your meals and accommodation came with the job.

    • Word count: 709
  14. EVALUATE FUNCTIONALIST EXPLANATIONS OF THE ROLE OF EDUCATION IN MODERN SOCIETY

    A second contribution schools make to the smooth running of the society is through 'sifting and sorting' people into different occupational roles. Those who do well in the education system are rewarded by being able to reach occupations that have high pay and high status. In effect, schools identify students' skills and abilities, selecting the more able for more challenging and advanced studies and guiding others towards courses and work more suited to their abilities. This has been described as meritocracy.

    • Word count: 900
  15. Action Aid talk on eathiopia

    Their partners range from small community support groups to national alliances and international networks seeking education for all, trade justice and action against HIV/AIDS. There work has influenced government's decisions On august 30th more than 600 people died and as many as 50,000 people have been displaced by severe flooding in nine of Ethiopia's eleven regions. Action Aid helped to bring help to most of the regions that were affected I am now going to tell you about a few of the people we have helped We were sent this photograph of a young girl 'Tsehay Tsegay' year of birth estimated at 1992, with a brief background history.

  16. women pre world war

    They were generally less paid than men due to them being considered inferior to men. Upper class women didn't work before or after the war but working class women had to too support their families. Working class women made up most of the 29% of women who worked. They were employed in the less skilled areas of working life. For example domestic service; which is made up of cleaning, working as a servant or cooking. They also worked in the textile industry or secretarial work.

    • Word count: 720
  17. Christallers theory states that larger settlements have a great sphere of influence

    The settlements I am going to investigate include: Enniskillen, Lisnaskea, Brookeborough, Maguiresbridge, Newtownbutler, Fivemiletown, Clones, Smithborough and finally Monaghan. Enniskillen and Monaghan have the largest population of the lot so therefore the should both offer a wider range of services and offer a better selection of H.O.G. I include maps of my route and town maps of Monaghan and Enniskillen, see appendix fig 1. In order to carry out my work and to prove my point I am going to need to design a quick and easy way of recording the number of services offered by a settlement, record the number of services and I will also need to design a questionnaire which will be able to give me

    • Word count: 787
  18. Describe the employment opportunities of women in Britain between 1914 and 1918

    Many women took up difficult and stressful jobs during the war period such as nursing in and out of the army. An example of a nursing job outside of the army was the Voluntary Aid Detachment. Again, lots of these women had never worked before and found the work challenging: "We never stopped for one single instant," Countess of Limerick. Women also faced sexual discrimination and harassment from both sexes at work. Established nurses disliked women who learnt about nursing "on the job" rather than training for a long time.

    • Word count: 945
  19. The immigrants

    To understand other culture is one of the important things that immigrant should adopt when they arrive to the country because people who belong to other culture have different ways of doing things and solve problems. For instance, when I first went to school here in America, students were not just from here, they were from all nation.

    • Word count: 481
  20. Identify and explain three ways in which, according to Marxism, the education system is said to "mirror" the workplace.

    The relationships people form with one another in school also replicates the relationships that are formed at work. At school everyone is arranged in a hierarchy or importance. The head teacher has the most authority over anyone else in the school. At a workplace the manager has the most power over anyone else in the organisation. Teachers have authority over the students and older students are superior to younger ones. This is exactly like the workplace where head of departments have authority over workers with a lower status. Another major similarity is that the education of a boy is seen as more important than the education of a girl.

    • Word count: 612
  21. Assess the Marxist view that education is a form of social control

    Marxist Louis Althusser believed that education teaches working class children to accept their place in society amongst the middle class. This shows social control as it makes students believe that the capitalist system that is present is fair and equal to everyone, also it prepares people for the later exploitation they experience in life. This can be done in three ways which are, the hidden curriculum, alienation of school work and textbooks. The hidden curriculum means that students are following instructions, rules and regulations from people above them in the education system, without asking many questions.

    • Word count: 639
  22. Within this essay, I will be examining the view that education re-creates the class system. Theories such as Marxism, Internationalism and feminism, would agree with each other in

    They believe that the education system works against the ideas of the working classes. In their 'correspondence theory' they argued that there was a correspondence between social relationships in the classroom and the work place. By this, they meant that the hierarchies, certificates, and discipline systems that can be found in schools are actually very similar to the world of work. In school you are paid with certificates, where as on the other hand in work you are paid with wages.

    • Word count: 536
  23. Telephone ConversationBy: Wole Soyinka This one stanza poem clearly elaborates on the idea of color prejudice that is common among most of middle class society. It

    Since he had to tell the lady that he is colored implies that he has prefect English accent that couldn't be differentiated from a white man's English over the phone. After he said his "self- confession" because he "hates a wasted journey" there was "silenced transmission of pressurized good breeding"; this quote refers to the landlady's upper class up bringing, which is being put under pressure by the idea of allowing a colored to live on her property. When she finally answers Soyinka describes the voice as a "lip stick coated, long gold-rolled cigarette holder pipped" voice, which reveals her

    • Word count: 822
  24. Based on our brainstorming our job was to build a scene describing what we thought of the beggar. Our setting was in the bar was authentic. There were two rich people wanting martinis

    Based on our brainstorming our job was to build a scene describing what we thought of the beggar. Our setting was in the bar was authentic. There were two rich people wanting martinis and only thinking of them selves, an alcoholic had dropped to the floor and the two talkative bar tenders. It was a scene of all us pitching in our thoughts of the beggar, including the drunken person on the floor. Then we had to do scenes about the day of our beggar. Mr. Tungate loved our group's scene idea on having an introductory scene with the girls jogging in the park and spotting the bum because of his body odor.

    • Word count: 615
  25. Computers In Education

    Computers have revolutionized education, but not without a cost. The cost is the quality of education some students receive. Computers take time students would normally use reading and researching so that they can make their project or paper more attractive. Time is taken away because teachers have not looked upon quality lately, and teachers don't grade harshly if it looks good. Papers have such a high expectation of visibility and a low expectation of quality these days. This theory has been tested by both students and experts and has been found to be true.

    • Word count: 635

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Assess the view that schools and what takes place within them are the main causes of social class difference in educational achievement.

    "To conclude my essay I think that school and what takes place in them isn't the main cause of social class. I think schooling is a good pathway provided in order for you to achieve you goals. This is only the case if the individual want to learn and work hard for a good job. Functionalist say that meritocracy isn't a myth with I agree with because its all about the individual."

  • Assess the View that Working Class Children Underachieve Because they are Culturally Deprived

    "Race also comes into the argument, in the sense that teachers can often label and black boys are frequently perceived as badly behaved and under achieving. However Errol Lawrence challenges this view and blames it on racism. To conclude, the extent to which working-class children are affected by their cultural values and socialisation is more vast than that of a middle-class pupil. Sugarman outlines four main factors that affect this; Falism; Collectivism; Immediate gratification and present-time orientation. It has been proved that children of working class families have a much higher chance of possessing these traits, and this can often lead to labelling and a negative attitude towards education, resulting in failure."

  • Religion can both be a conservative force and an initiator of social change. To what extent do sociological arguments and evidence support this view of religion?

    "In conclusion, religion can be both a conservative force and an initiator of social change. Functionalists would argue that religion acts as a conservative force in that it inhibits social change by promoting social solidarity and integration. Marxists have a similar view, however, they believe religion inhibits social change in that it discourage individuals from trying to change their position in society. On the other hand, Weber and Neo-Marxists argue that religion can be revolutionary and act as an initiator of social change. This evidence suggests that religion can both be a conservative force and an initiator of social change. Jessica Pemberton"

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