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AS and A Level: Work & Leisure

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 2
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    Critically Evaluate the Functionalist Perspective on Education

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    Through the socialisation of future generations they claim that the needs of society are meet, thus the installation of, what are seen to be, socially agreed shared norms and values into youths results in a future respect for authority and conformity to societies rules, amongst other things. Therefore, this will, in theory, lead to social harmony, stability and social integration. Davis and Moore (1945) argue that the education system matches students to the jobs in which they are best suited on a basis of their talent and ability.

    • Word count: 2155
  2. To what extent do feminist theories remain relevant for interpreting gendered patterns of work.

    It has been to varying degrees of success been relevant for noticing the changes in employment patterns over the years, which I will soon highlight. The liberal feminist approach, through its drive for individual liberty, has continued to mould the change in women's opportunities right up to this present day. This can be seen in its shaping of many equality reports, such as the s*x Discrimination Act (passed 1975) and the Equality Act (passed 2006). If we continue to look at the present twenty-first century - in which feminist theory remains a driving force in societal change - the changes in gendered patterns of work can be explained through this feminist theory.

    • Word count: 2951
  3. Multi-agency working

    The YOT identifies the needs of each young offender by assessing them with a national assessment. It identifies the specific problems that make the young person offend as well as measuring the risk they pose to others. This enables the YOT to identify suitable programmes to address the needs of the young person with the intention of preventing further offending. Their mission statement is simply "'Partnership to Prevent Offending by Young People' and has several key objectives such as; * Tackling delays, speeding up justice for all young offenders.

    • Word count: 2085
  4. Religion can both be a conservative force and an initiator of social change. To what extent do sociological arguments and evidence support this view of religion?

    Without this, there would be no social order, social solidarity or co-operation. Religion reinforces the collective conscience through the process of collective worship, whereby individuals come together to express their shared values and become united together. Religion therefore inhibits social change, as it maintains social solidarity and stability within society. In maintaining social solidarity, religion acts as a conservative force; when it fails to perform this function, new ideas may emerge that become the new religion. Durkheim uses communism and nationalism as examples of the new religions that have taken over from Christianity. Functionalists argue that religion itself does not change -its form does- but what does not change is its function.

    • Word count: 2428
  5. SOCIAL CLASS DIVISION

    likely than middle-class children to find themselves in the then grammar schools, top streams and examination classes, or staying on past the official school-leaving age. Explanations for this phenomenon were sought in the characteristics of different children, their upbringing and environment, and in the selection procedures and underlying assumptions which were employed by teachers and schools. Schools were seen to be reflecting and reinforcing the social class divisions of the wider society. The Education Act was repealed in 1979 on the election of the Conservative Government.

    • Word count: 2742
  6. To what extent did women become more emancipated in the period 1800-1914? In 1800 there were only a very small number of women who were literate

    The church wanted people to read the bible and so the Church of England National Society for Education was set up. The majority of working class children went to these schools at some point, the Sunday schools offered similar education to factory schools and religious groups financed them. Some people believe that this was just a social control to convince the working classes to accept their position in life. Although this was one of the only educational opportunities for girls many parents kept them at home.

    • Word count: 2689
  7. In the 15th Century the idea of 'schooling' began, the church ran the schools

    To determine which school pupils would attend they would take an IQ test at aged 11. Those who passed the test went to grammar or technical schools, all schools were supposed to have similar standards of provision, know as 'parity of esteem'. This system was criticised for being culturally biased against working class children and unequal amongst boys and girls, here are some examples: * Many middle-class children who failed the 11+ were sent into private education by their parents.

    • Word count: 2205
  8. Higher Education in the USA. Finishing school is the beginning of an independent life for millions of school graduates

    It comprises four categories of institution: 1. The university, which may contain: - several colleges for undergraduate students seeking a bachelor's four-year degree; - one or more graduate schools for those continuing in specialized studies beyond the bachelor's degree to obtain a master's or a doctoral degree; 2. The four-year undergraduate institution - the college - most of which are not part of a university; 3. The technical training institution, at which high school graduates may take courses ranging from six months to four years in duration, and learn a wide variety of technical skills, from hair styling through business accounting to computer programming; 4.

    • Word count: 2492
  9. Using material from Item A and elsewhere assess the contribution of functionalist sociology to an understanding of the role of education in society.

    Durkhiem stated that for a child "to become attached to society, the child must feel in something which is real, alive and powerful, which dominates the person and to which he owns the best part of himself". Durkhiem's view is supported by the UK where there is a common national curriculum, which helps to support shared norms and values and they also learn about the history of Britain. Durkhiem stated that school serves a function in a complex industrial society that the family or peer group can't.

    • Word count: 2601
  10. Consortia and Revenue Streams: the case of shared professorial lines

    The Association for Consortium Leadership (ACL), founded 35 years ago, provides insight into the types of consortia its 65 members have formed throughout the United States. It is the only institution serving higher education with a focus on inter-institutional cooperation. Institutions planning a partnership with each other and/or a community are given advice and a mentor to help them establish their program and meet their needs. Other services include helping doctoral students, search firms and conference planners in their projects as well as administering consulting assistance to and exploring new areas for existing partnerships.

    • Word count: 2196
  11. The Global Pattern of Aids Infection.

    All of these regions have less than 2.5 million infections, a very small amount compare to South and South East Asia and Sub Saharan Desert. Out of all the regions, the region Australia and New Zealand has the least amount of infections. Reasons There are numerous factors that have contributed to the AIDS epidemic in Sub Saharan Africa such as: Most Africans, including the president of Zimbabwe, refuse to even acknowledge that AIDS is a problem in Sub Saharan Africa.

    • Word count: 2162
  12. Singapore's education policies are largely influenced by the need to compete in a global economy. Do you agree? Explain your answer.

    In addition, technical schools and vocational institutes were set up to provide training in areas such as electricity, electronics and metalwork. Existing institutions such as Ngee Ann Technical College and Singapore Polytechnic were expanded to include courses in similar fields of study. The government also encouraged the study of English as a first language, as they realised that the English Language held the key to better jobs and a better economy as it allowed access to western knowledge and technology, which during that time was one of the most, if not the most, advanced in the world.

    • Word count: 2049
  13. Report on: Lowood Institution for Orphan Girls.

    This fee is only here for the upkeep of the school. The fee to come to Lowood is �15 per annum. This money is used to pay for the costs of food, clothing, general maintenance needed to be done to the school, etc. 2 Physical Environment 2.1 Grounds and Location Lowood School is near the location of Lowood. In the area, there are also many hills and a stream. The main trees are the great elm, ash and oak. There is lots of beautiful wild primrose as well. It has a lovely garden, which is cultivated by the girls and has been kept considering tools provided to the girls by the school.

    • Word count: 2146
  14. "Society originates because the individual is not self sufficient and no two of us are born exactly alike". How does Plato get from that claim to the view that philosophers should rule? Are you convinced by his claims that philosophers should rule?

    The two principles Socrates found were first, mutual need, as "The individual is not self sufficient but has many needs which he can't supply himself"4. Therefore humans need to live together in societies in order to survive. Plato lists the needs of the basic community as being provision of food, shelter, and clothing requiring tradesmen to provide services such as farming, weaving and building as well as others providing support by making the necessary equipment for them. From this, a small state is begun on a purely economic basis.

    • Word count: 2547
  15. The right to education has moved to the forefront as being one of the most complex and serious human rights issues today.

    The disparities in women and education are the greatest in developing countries. The origins of this violation to providing women with the right to education, is rooted in deep social and cultural concerns or constructs of a particular society. These constructs are found within tradition, religious practices, and community- based morals. In many situations these constructs do not see the value of educating girls. In these societies girls are likely to be discriminated against from the beginning. They may receive less care, both in terms of nurturing and in terms of food.

    • Word count: 2869
  16. What is education for? Critically evaluate the diverse functions of education with reference to recent changes in education policy.

    This Act will be the starting point for this essay as it laid the foundations for subsequent acts and remains to this day the basic framework for education policy. The education act of 1944 - often referred to as the Butler act- was the responsibility of government minister R.A. Butler, who saw education along with other social welfare policies-health and social security- as important to the social reconstruction of post war Britain-the new education system would be controlled and run through local education authorities (LEA)

    • Word count: 2185
  17. What was the role of the government in developing Elementary Education 1833-1870?

    The Class system was another thing that was preventing the government from contributing money towards education. Everyone knew his or her place in society so for the poor to read write and be educated would make them more intelligent and mess up the 'The Great Chain of Being'; this was another name for the social structure at the time. The chain of being was written about once by a Bishop in 1720 and he said "God so orders it that we always have some Poor among us" from this the 'The great chain of being' had come about.

    • Word count: 2894
  18. Comparing 19th and 20th Centaury Short Stories - Son's Veto and growing up.

    The main part that religion plays in Son's Veto is the way it is abused by Randolph. He stops his mother from marrying her old love Sam, whom Randolph believes is of a class to low for him to be associated with. Randolph drags his mother to an altar and forces her to swear by God that she will never marry Sam without his express permission.

    • Word count: 2565
  19. 'Education is a tool of the ruling class'- Discuss.

    The first step when beginning to look at the above statement is to start to understand what is meant by the 'ruling class.' In today's society where large enterprises are seen to hold more power than some governments and where it is very hard to see, to the common person, who is actually making the decisions that define our everyday lives, the actual ruling class is rarely defined and pinpointed. The Dictionary of Sociology (N. Abercrombie- Penguin) definitions it as such: 'The ruling class has come to mean a social class, usually the economically dominant class, that controls a society through whatever political institutions are available.'

    • Word count: 2167
  20. 'The function of education is to reproduce and legitimate social inequality. Discuss.'

    The difference being that middle class families provided their children with an advantageous primary socialisation in the form of literature, using a wide vocabulary, etc which resulted in a stark difference in ability at the age of eleven. The system was highly criticised by saying that it did not allow fair opportunity for children from all social backgrounds so in response to this in the 1960's/70's the British Labour Government designed and introduced the 'Comprehensive'. The Comprehensive was intended to reduce class differences in educational attainment. It allowed children to mix from all social backgrounds and therefore provided equal opportunity.

    • Word count: 2422
  21. A source based investigation on 19th Century Schooling in Debenham Using sources A and B, can you explain how schooling in Debenham seems to have changed between 1833 and 1880?

    Another reason was probably because no-one had to pay a fee to go to a Sunday school. Then, in 1835, we can see that the Government gave a trust deed to the Established Church School. This was to instruct poor children of both sexes in the parish of Debenham. This meant that the Government was taking an interest in what was happening to the education in Debenham. In 1866 the Sir Robert Hitcham's Church of England School was erected, and was managed by the Vicar of Debenham. The old school had closed down, and now a new school with the old master (Sir Robert Hitcham)

    • Word count: 2782
  22. Examination of the Functionalist view that schools serve the interests of both society and individuals.

    Durkheim also looked at how schools teach social rules and how the school is a 'society in miniature'. School allows these social rules to be learnt in an appropriate context, teaching pupils that individuals need to cooperate with all acquaintances not just friends and family. These rules and pupils interactions with teachers and other students prepare them for their adult life in society. Schools also teach the specific occupational skills needed in modern industrial society, where the division of labour has become more complex and specialised. In pre-industrial society the family provided these work skills but in modern times schools play a vital role in ensuring the provision of a specifically skilled and educated workforce.

    • Word count: 2089
  23. Does Mill Successfully reconcile the demands of individual liberty with the demands of general welfare?

    In his early twenties Mill suffered form a nervous breakdown though later on became a civil servant, a politician and foremost an influential academic. His influences and the environment will be the main factors that will guide Mill towards his ideas on liberty and individuality. He was also sceptical of the church3 and the aristocracy as he believed that they were at the heart of conformity, this will in addition be reflected in his other works, here are the most relevant ones: System of Logic (1843)

    • Word count: 2645
  24. Assess Functionalist and Marxist approaches to the relationship between education and economy.

    Durkhiem stated that school serves a function in a complex industrial society that the family or peer group can't. Children are taught to get along with those who are neither their kin nor friend. Durkhiem saw schools as society in miniature. Durkhiem also argued that school rules should be enforced and punishment which should reflect the seriousness of the damage done to the social group and should be made clear why they were being punished. Durkhiem also explained that education teaches individual specific task, which are necessary for their future jobs. David Hargreaves supported Durkhiem view by saying that schools place too much stress on the developing the individuals and not enough on the duties and responsibilities for social solidarity.

    • Word count: 2051
  25. Critically compare and contrast two theories of Western schooling with respect to the following statement: Education acts as an agent for the reproduction of the social order and the preservation of status of the privileged in society.

    It is due to these two reasons that educational institutions are of utmost necessity (Hebding and Glick, 1992). We shall look at two theories proposed by different sociologists on the nature of Western schooling. The first is a theory proposed by Emile Durkheim, which takes a functionalist approach and the second is a theory proposed by Bowles and Gintis, who look at education from an economic side (Allen, 2001). Emile Durkheim: Durkheim was a French sociologist who viewed the major function of education as the transmission of society's norms and values (Haralambos and Heald, 1980). The functionalist view of education focuses on the positive contributions made by education to the maintenance of the social system.

    • Word count: 2101

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Assess the view that schools and what takes place within them are the main causes of social class difference in educational achievement.

    "To conclude my essay I think that school and what takes place in them isn't the main cause of social class. I think schooling is a good pathway provided in order for you to achieve you goals. This is only the case if the individual want to learn and work hard for a good job. Functionalist say that meritocracy isn't a myth with I agree with because its all about the individual."

  • Assess the View that Working Class Children Underachieve Because they are Culturally Deprived

    "Race also comes into the argument, in the sense that teachers can often label and black boys are frequently perceived as badly behaved and under achieving. However Errol Lawrence challenges this view and blames it on racism. To conclude, the extent to which working-class children are affected by their cultural values and socialisation is more vast than that of a middle-class pupil. Sugarman outlines four main factors that affect this; Falism; Collectivism; Immediate gratification and present-time orientation. It has been proved that children of working class families have a much higher chance of possessing these traits, and this can often lead to labelling and a negative attitude towards education, resulting in failure."

  • Religion can both be a conservative force and an initiator of social change. To what extent do sociological arguments and evidence support this view of religion?

    "In conclusion, religion can be both a conservative force and an initiator of social change. Functionalists would argue that religion acts as a conservative force in that it inhibits social change by promoting social solidarity and integration. Marxists have a similar view, however, they believe religion inhibits social change in that it discourage individuals from trying to change their position in society. On the other hand, Weber and Neo-Marxists argue that religion can be revolutionary and act as an initiator of social change. This evidence suggests that religion can both be a conservative force and an initiator of social change. Jessica Pemberton"

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