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AS and A Level: Work & Leisure
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Rich man, poor man, beggar man, thief - Nike promotes sport and healthy living but the lives of workers who make Nike shoes and clothes in Asia are anything but healthy
It's food or medicine, not both. It's a mat to sleep on in a nine by nine cell. In short ninety pence, the daily rate at Nike factories and the mandated Indonesian minimum is more a dying wage than a living wage. We are the reason that the poor get poorer and the rich get richer. Demand here effects lives there. Poor people are being kept poor, thanks to companies like Nike. People have to work overtime, and if they don't, they either get the sack or they get abused both physically and mentally. Workers are so poor that they cannot take the risk and say no, because they need the money so much.
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This could mean only one thing; supply teacher, and it was this one thing that made the freezing wait worthwhile. After a few more minutes solidifying as ice, a door opened and out strolled our prey; looking like a soldier walking out to battle. Her pre-battle morale was showing, but was soon to be shattered. She introduced herself, Ms Uptite. Now that we had reckoned our new opponent, we walked onto the battlefield: the classroom. She appeared timid as she read out the lesson plan but then again, so did every new opponent.
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The difference being that middle class families provided their children with an advantageous primary socialisation in the form of literature, using a wide vocabulary, etc which resulted in a stark difference in ability at the age of eleven. The system was highly criticised by saying that it did not allow fair opportunity for children from all social backgrounds so in response to this in the 1960's/70's the British Labour Government designed and introduced the 'Comprehensive'. The Comprehensive was intended to reduce class differences in educational attainment. It allowed children to mix from all social backgrounds and therefore provided equal opportunity.
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In this way, the child is prepared for society and will join it with a sense of social solidarity, and will understand that he/she must cooperate with people that are neither peers nor kin. Another important function of the educational system, according to Durkheim, is the transmission of occupational skills. He felt that this was essential for industrial society, due to its specialised division of labour. At school pupils must acquire the skills that enable them to become specialists. Durkheim believed this was particularly important, because he felt that social solidarity is based upon the interdependence of specialised skills.
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During this development, both skilled women and men were forced to modernize. Just as Sidney Pollard had described, "a society of peasants, craftsmen, and versatile labourers became a society of modern industrial workers." This process was difficult because it required a task of industrializing whole cultures. Nevertheless, the process was achieved as the nation gathered and worked to transform themselves and new groups from the pre-industry to the new. This progression was continually altered by immigration, social conflicts, and through various other elements.
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A source based investigation on 19th Century Schooling in Debenham Using sources A and B, can you explain how schooling in Debenham seems to have changed between 1833 and 1880?
Another reason was probably because no-one had to pay a fee to go to a Sunday school. Then, in 1835, we can see that the Government gave a trust deed to the Established Church School. This was to instruct poor children of both sexes in the parish of Debenham. This meant that the Government was taking an interest in what was happening to the education in Debenham. In 1866 the Sir Robert Hitcham's Church of England School was erected, and was managed by the Vicar of Debenham. The old school had closed down, and now a new school with the old master (Sir Robert Hitcham)
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Compare and contrast the Marxist and Functionalist views on the role of education in industrial society
However, the functionalist's view of society is that it is meritocratic, which means that those who do well will achieve more in life and will receive rewards for their hard work, which fits in with the role allocation idea of those who do well in school, will end up having the better jobs in the adult world, and that the role of education benefits everyone equally. The Marxists believe that the role of education benefits the ruling class only, and that is where there is a difference between the two theorists.
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In the school status has to be achieved and is only done so on merits providing a better preparation for the outside world. This is a preferable socialisation as the wider society expects and relies upon achieved status. Ottoway & North suggest that the schools are useful because they pass on knowledge and skills to the next generation, this is to keep society functioning. It also sustains and in the long term will improve present knowledge. Moore & Davies back up this theory stating that the school provides an 'economic placement'.
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Therefore if employees must take drug tests to prove their ability, than drug testing should be morally and ethically acceptable. The 4th amendment guarantees citizens the right to privacy as long as what they do in their private lives does not harm other people. It has been argued time and time again that drug testing steals this right from people, and maybe in some ways it does. People do have the right to treat themselves how they want, and also have the right to enjoy life however they choose to enjoy it.
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Examination of the Functionalist view that schools serve the interests of both society and individuals.
Durkheim also looked at how schools teach social rules and how the school is a 'society in miniature'. School allows these social rules to be learnt in an appropriate context, teaching pupils that individuals need to cooperate with all acquaintances not just friends and family. These rules and pupils interactions with teachers and other students prepare them for their adult life in society. Schools also teach the specific occupational skills needed in modern industrial society, where the division of labour has become more complex and specialised. In pre-industrial society the family provided these work skills but in modern times schools play a vital role in ensuring the provision of a specifically skilled and educated workforce.
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This is because it was a known fact in the 1970's that the males would look after the whole family which would include the wife and children and so therefore the women would not be required to work. However since this time evidence now shows that girls are outperforming boys at GCSE level. This shows those major changes in attitudes and teaching methods has occurred since the 1970's. Results now show that girls statistically perform better in later stages of secondary school as the GCSE achievements of the girls are well above those of the boys.
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In the rest of the U.K., to what extent did the domestic legislative reforms of the liberal’s administration of 1868-74 Improve conditions for the working class?
Gladstone was under tremendous pressures and found it hard to draw up an act that both pleased everyone and had considerable effect for the working class children. The major act of the education reform programme was Forster's education act of 1870. This act laid the foundations of the English education system; the 'dual system' was created where either Church schools or state schools provided education. Anglican and Nonconformist schools continued with increased grants, and boards were set up to control state schools.
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The articles contradict each other in some ways. For example Annie Besant in Source A states that the girls were paid 'average' wages, Source B challenges this. It says 'the lowest rate of wages paid to unskilled apprentices...was given as the average to all workers'. This implies that the Matchgirls supporter was either lying or over exaggerating about the facts and figures she used in her article. The differences of opinion about the wages, between Source A and Source B, are immense.
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Finally and most arguably the biggest factor in delaying the extension of the franchise was the outbreak of the First World War. It is evident that many other factors were present but it is the three above that seemingly hindered women's suffrage greatly. In the years before 1928 women's rights had undoubtedly improved but not enough to give them the vote. The Victorian attitudes that men placed on women were still present, many still believed that the woman's place was at home were the woman played a central role, caring for the children, completing domestic duties and of course tending to the needs of her husband.
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I believe that the people who are actually producing the clothes play just an equally important and crucial role in the manufacturing process as those higher up in the business and it is extremely unfair that the difference in pay is so vast. The factory workers possibly even work harder and for longer hours, yet they are barely paid a subsistence wage. In 1999, Gap spent �360 million on advertising alone, so it definitely could afford to pay decent wages.
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Does Mill Successfully reconcile the demands of individual liberty with the demands of general welfare?
In his early twenties Mill suffered form a nervous breakdown though later on became a civil servant, a politician and foremost an influential academic. His influences and the environment will be the main factors that will guide Mill towards his ideas on liberty and individuality. He was also sceptical of the church3 and the aristocracy as he believed that they were at the heart of conformity, this will in addition be reflected in his other works, here are the most relevant ones: System of Logic (1843)
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Durkhiem stated that school serves a function in a complex industrial society that the family or peer group can't. Children are taught to get along with those who are neither their kin nor friend. Durkhiem saw schools as society in miniature. Durkhiem also argued that school rules should be enforced and punishment which should reflect the seriousness of the damage done to the social group and should be made clear why they were being punished. Durkhiem also explained that education teaches individual specific task, which are necessary for their future jobs. David Hargreaves supported Durkhiem view by saying that schools place too much stress on the developing the individuals and not enough on the duties and responsibilities for social solidarity.
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Pre 1914, women worked as servants and in factories. In 1914 there were 5.9million women working out of 23.7million. In domestic service, there were 1.5million women working, 900,00 were working in textiles and 500,000 in the sweated trade. Middle class women sometimes worked as lawyers, teachers, teachers or doctors. But this was a very small number and very few middle class married women would be working at all. Upper class women rarely worked either. Upper class women usually did charity work and the few upper class women that did work had better jobs than the lower class women. The types of work undertaken by women pre 1914 were mainly: * Domestic service e.g chamber maid, cook, cleaner in a
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In 1911 over half the country's urban dwellers inhabited one or two roomed homes. These accommodations produced conditions in which privacy was impossible and disease spread rapidly. Sanitation was appalling. Suburbs improved because of the Police act in 1892 and a public health act in 1897, which increased the power of local Government After the first world war, housing acts provided authorities with Government help, these were council housing of two or three story properties where families had their own front doors, bathrooms and toilets.
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Critically compare and contrast two theories of Western schooling with respect to the following statement: Education acts as an agent for the reproduction of the social order and the preservation of status of the privileged in society.
It is due to these two reasons that educational institutions are of utmost necessity (Hebding and Glick, 1992). We shall look at two theories proposed by different sociologists on the nature of Western schooling. The first is a theory proposed by Emile Durkheim, which takes a functionalist approach and the second is a theory proposed by Bowles and Gintis, who look at education from an economic side (Allen, 2001). Emile Durkheim: Durkheim was a French sociologist who viewed the major function of education as the transmission of society's norms and values (Haralambos and Heald, 1980). The functionalist view of education focuses on the positive contributions made by education to the maintenance of the social system.
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Comment on the suggestion that women gained “illusory progress” in the societies of Western Europe during the inter-war period?
The term Illusory Progress is advancement towards a higher social standing based on a deception. The concept of progress is multi dimensional making any answers a judgement on the importance of a large variety of sources. I will break progress into a judgement on opportunities at the time and the effect on potential opportunities in the future. I will do this using the main Western European countries of Germany, France, Italy and Britain for analysis in the inter war period, 1918-1939. The first area of progression to discuss is employment; advancement in employment would give women a greater economic and social status.
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Assess the reasons for the introduction of the comprehensive system and the extent to which it has succeeded.
These types of schools were attended by the more 'better off' society and the wealthier parents. There were more criticisms made than endorsement given to the tripate system. What was needed was a new type of secondary schooling that provided equality of educational opportunity. Comprehensive Secondary Education was introduced into our lives in the year of 1944 to enable children of all abilities, and from different types of social background to attend the same school. This gave the children equal opportunities to obtain training and qualifications.
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My earliest memory of life was walking down my hometown of Paignton and looking up at a garage sign and wondering ‘What will I be doing in the year 1996’?
I would either make or greet a cup of tea that rested on the front room table. Rugrats was my morning TV wake up call for about six months. A continuous drab of horseshit about babies looking for an imaginary toilet flush that turned out to be a diving board, that they would unethically jump upon to make the local swimming pool empty, it's chlorine filled hole. After my meeting with the TV, we would get driven to the hell of secondary education. Best years of your life! What a bunch crap. Your parents drive that unsubstantiated garbage into your ears.
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Even though they militarily removed the existing chiefdoms and other local forms of governments they had always faced resistance and hence the need for an ideological 'brainwashing' of the African societies which was made possible by the establishment of an education which propagated and promulgated the colonialists values and worldview. The curriculum carried the viewpoints of the colonialists, which did not by any means, reflect the social and cultural heritage of the native peoples. It enforced ideas which indoctrinated the pseudo-inferiority of the black people and geared the populace to the legitimating of the colonial rule.
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Girls believed their lives are to be centred on domesticity marriage and restricted job opportunities. (See appendix 1) Although the girls interviewed in 1991 appear more independent than those interviewed in 1972. Many of the girls in 1972 had chosen careers in office work and in low paid jobs. In 1991 girls' attitudes had changed saying they would like a career in nursing, teaching and veterinary nurse but none of the girls had said they would like to become doctors or surgeons. In 1991 the priority of the girls' was still to get married. Relationships towards male within society appeared to have changed very little, they were still seen by girls as the breadwinners.
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