Argyle's and Tuckman's Theories of Communication.
Glodie Musuele unit 1 p2
Michael argyle was a psychologist born on august 11th 1925. He was one of the best known social psychologist who spent most of his career in the University of Oxford. Later on he gained a first experimental degree in psychology from Cambridge University in 1950 and later became the first lecturer in social psychology at the University of Oxford, also with London school of economics.
The communication cycle. The communication cycle is when we understand what is being said, reflect and check out what the person you are communicating with is saying. When communicating to people we have to make sure they understand what we are saying and respond to it accordingly. The communication cycle has 6 steps.
Step one- an idea occurs
-Have you idea of what you are going to communicate -Who you are going to communicate with, for example if they are older or younger than you and if so how much are they, or a work colleague -What the person on the recovering end should do with the information for example if a parent asks the chid a question they are expecting an answer -What is the best way to communicate the certain information, for example if a doctor is telling a patient they are terminally ill they should say it in a gentle, caring tone and show that they care -Should I have used diagrams, charts, pictures or any other sign language for example if you are communicating with someone who has a speech, visual and hearing disability
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Step two-message coded The second step is that you need to code the message. You should think about what language you are going to talk to the person in and if they’re going to understand it, you also need to think about what barriers may affect the way you are going to put across this message. When you’re talking to a child you have to change the way you talk and use simple English and basic words so the child understands you properly. You may also need to think about using signs and symbols for those who have difficulty communicating. Linked to the above example I would choose my words carefully to be supportive but also give them the opportunity to express their feelings
Step 3- send the message When sending a message communicate clearly and making sure that you’re saying the right things at the right time. Some things that you have to consider is that maybe the receiver of the message is having a hard time so you may have to think of sensitive things to say. You also have to make sure that you are communicating this information in a clear and understandable environment so you will have to make sure that the lighting is good and also that there’s no distractions wherever you are going to hold this conversation.
Step 4-message received The fourth step of the communication cycle is that the message should be received but this depends on whether the message is either spoken or written because there are different ways of storing the information and also converting the information. If you find something hard to understand you should always ask the speaker and they should be able to explain it again but you should always wait for the speaker to finish talking and not interrupt. If the message received is being read you should always find somewhere to read it quietly, not be distracted and if you don’t seem to understand it you should try and reply to the person sending you the message.
Step 5-message code If the message has been sent effectively, you should be able to understand what is being said or written. For example if a carer asks their patient how they feel, they will respond by saying if they are feeling good or bad. Does your body language back up what you are saying? For example if a member of staff at a primary school is talking to a toddler their body language should be calm and inviting and their voice should be calm and gentle rather than tense
Step 6-message understood
The last step is of the communication cycle is to make sure that the message has been understood even though sometimes you may not understand the first time but you may understand if its explained more than once. It’s like if you were explaining something to someone who didn’t understand what you were saying you would have to explain it more than once for the information to be understood.
Tuckman looks at the way groups work together. The first part of Tuckmans theory is forming which is when someone meets someone new or more than one person/ people meet and start to share knowledge and information this might even be information about yourself and the other person
The second part of Tuckmans theory is storming which is when the task is given to the group members. Storming is when say a team or group of people put ideas across to each other and discuss these ideas. During storming although the group members don’t know each other that well they start to work together more and do less independent work. The storming part is hard because the fact that the group members don’t know each other properly will make it hard because different people might have different ways of communicating and this may be a barrier to communication.
The third part of Tuckmans theory is norming so when the group have finished storming they start to move onto norming which is when everything becomes normal and the group gets used to each other and decide to start communicating without difficulties and without any kinds of problems.
Stage four of Tuckmans theory is called performing, when the team starts to work together properly and get everything done. Everyone in the group knows what they’re doing and are assigned tasks together or even separately and the leader of the group won’t have to even interfere only when there are some disagreements.
An example of this is a new nursery starting up to start with a group of new people would come together under the leadership of the manager. Together they would start forming relationships and lead by the manager would start to develop the aims of the nursery. As they would come from various backgrounds they may all have different ideas to contribute and ways of doing things during the forming stage the group would identify ways to work together with the leader still making sure that all ideas are listened to, there would possibly be some disagreements at this stage and the manager would still need to do some leading of the group. Once the group have identified the way that they want the nursery to run and everyone in the group knows what they’re doing they move on to the norming stage where people begin to work with each other knowing what they should be doing and communicating effectively Finally after a while if there are no changes to staffing the group will work independently knowing what they are doing and will need little assistance from the manager most of the time.