Question 2: Are any of these reasons more important that the others is causing some Palestinians to carry out acts of terrorism The Arab - Israeli conflict has been going on for more than 50 years. It involves two groups of people called the Arabs and the Jews. The conflict is an ongoing battle between the two groups of people over an area of land called Israel at present in the Middle East. In 1948, Israel was set up as a country for Jews in 1948 by the United Nations (UN). Jews then declared independence from the Palestinians and their own Jewish state in Israel. However as the area was previously under the power of the Arabs, the Arab people did not want to give up their land for the Jews. This was because they felt that due to the fact that they were living there for the past 1000 years they should keep the land. The initial decision by the UN to split the land in 1948 meant that these two groups of people have been arguing ever since, and therefore this has resulted in constant battle between the two groups. Wars, terrorism and suicide bombings have become everyday threats to the Arab and Jewish people. The Palestinians feel that they should keep the land and will defend themselves if the Jewish people were to start settlements. There have been many terrorist attacks from the Palestinians over the past years. Examples of these attacks including a suicide bomber who
George Maund Cuban Missile Crisis - History Coursework Assignment Two Question One Source A shows that the President must have felt a great sense of urgency in order for him to telephone his brother, the American Attorney General, at the start of the working day. The Source also indicates that President Kennedy went straight to the point, stating that America faced great trouble, and that he was now sure of Soviet placing of missiles on Cuban land. President Kennedy would have felt very threatened upon seeing the U2 spy plane photographs. His initial reaction would have been deep shock at the proof of ballistic missiles so close to America. Source B contains the geographical implications of the placement of missiles. These missiles were so close to American shores that they would bypass the early warning system located in the Arctic, which was designed to detect missiles approaching from Russia, east of America. If Kennedy had looked closely at the geographical implications of inter-continental ballistic missiles on Cuban soil, he would have seen the vast array of threatened American cities. Miami, New Orleans and Dallas fell inside the 1000-mile radius of short-range ICBMs, and New York, Chicago and the capital were within the 2000-mile radius of long-range ICBMs. In addition to the implications of missiles being present on Cuba, the very idea that the enemy and fellow
IT has been a triumph in the face of overwhelming odds. Forty years ago on New Year's Day, dictator Fulginio Baptista fled Havana. Fidel Castro and his band of fighters entered the Cuban capital to be ecstatically greeted by the people as liberators. With Castro were his comrades-in-arms, Che Guevara and Camilio Cienfuegos. The three were involved in many a famous battle that led up to the revolution. Castro first launched his armed struggle against Batista on July 26, 1953 with an attack on the Moncada Barracks. Many of his comrades were killed in this heroic attack and Castro himself was arrested. Batista later granted a general amnesty in which Castro and other revolutionaries were freed. They then left for Mexico and returned clandestinely a year later along with 82 revolutionaries. After some initial setbacks, Castro and his band took refuge in the Sierra Maestra Mountains and launched the struggle, which liberated the island in three years. Many of the battles they fought are now part of revolutionary folklore. The decisive victory in the central Cuban city of Santa Clara under the leadership of Che included the capture of an armoured train packed with anti-aircraft and machine guns. The victors comprised a few hundred highly motivated fighters facing a full-fledged government army. The capture of Santa Clara cleared the way for the revolutionary army to move into
Should George Bush Press Ahead with his Plans for National Missile Defence? When, on the 11th September 2001, the USA was struck by the worst single act of terrorism of all time, many thought a shift of foreign policy adopted by the sole superpower was imminent. Indeed, for a short time, the USA focussed on finding and 'bringing to justice' the terrorist organisation Al Q'aida. Yet shortly after this, connections were made between the terrorists and certain nation states, which had been long time foes, or at least not allies, of the USA. This is shown clearly by George W. Bush's 'State of the Union' address in 2001, in which he identifies an "Axis of Evil"1 of Iraq, Iran and North Korea. From this, it can be seen that the USA perceives its primary adversaries as not the old rivals of the USSR and China, but of smaller, 'rogue' states. Given the extent to which weapons of mass destruction (WMD) are spread over the globe and that the means of delivering them, notably Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBM), seem more widely available than ever, it is no wonder that the debate over National Missile Defence (NMD) has once again been brought to the fore. The basic theory of George W. Bush's plans for NMD is that a number of sensors placed around the globe could detect a launch of a missile. These may be land, sea or space-based, and allow for 'interceptors', also at various
Castro's revolution Fidel Castro and the M-26-7 successfully seized power of Cuba's government in 1959, after years of fighting. The M-26-7's nationalist movement was able to knock the corrupt leader, Fulgencio Batista, out of power, and in 1961 Castro deemed the revolution to be officially of a Marxist nature. Throughout his 40-year stay as president, Castro has not allowed his revolution to stall, but rather he has allowed it to progress and adapt as he has seen fit. In relation with Castro's revolution in Cuba has been another revolution, that of the Cuban women. Castro himself described the changes in women's public and private lives as "a revolution within a revolution". In a true system of equality, as in the one Castro holds as his ideal, equality reaches all people across all lines whether they are lines of race, class, or gender. Throughout Castro's campaign, starting in 1953 with the failed Moncada attack, Castro has used historic referenciality to appeal to the Cuban population. Castro's most often mentioned historical figure is no other than the national hero, José Martí. While Martí's view on women is suspect to debate, his opinion on equality is very clear. Martí once said, "Respect for the freedom and ideas of others, of even the most wretched being, is my fanaticism. When I die, or if I am killed, it will be because of that." The crux of this prophetic
" Individuals do not 'shape' historical events; the best they can do is to respond to opportunities." With reference to one or more individuals you have studied, how far do you support this claim?
" Individuals do not 'shape' historical events; the best they can do is to respond to opportunities." With reference to one or more individuals you have studied, how far do you support this claim? In this essay, my individual is the infamous Che Guevara. I have chosen Che Guevara because he is someone who many of the younger generations of today can relate to. Che Guevara's actions changed the course of history for many people's life's worldwide. However Che Guevara created this opportunity himself, in a way he responded to a situation that meant more to him, than leading an ordinary life, and Che Guevara lived a far from ordinary life. With respect to Che, the Cuban Revolution brought out the characteristics that the radical world came to admire. Che demonstrated his natural ability to take on new tasks and to be an effective leader during battle. During the battle of Sierra Maestra, he organised a workshop of weaponry, tailoring, and shoemaking and the production of bread, beef jerky, cigarettes and cigars as logistical support for the guerrilla campaign. On the battlefield, he led one of the forces that invaded central Cuba, capturing Santa Clara, the decisive victory of the war against the Batista forces of Cuba. Che's keen ability to organise militarily is one characteristic that would lead many people to follow him. The way in which he supported the fighting that was
* THE COLD WAR 1950-1975 o The superpowers regularly argued and criticized the actions of each other on UN assembly o They criticized each other through television, newspapers, art and films o Never came to war o Commonly sent troops to help other states to disrupt the aims and plans of their opponents o Anti-Communism in the USA * There was great dislike of communism in the USA - Senator Joseph McCarthy was one of the biggest opponents in USA and claimed that communist infiltrated American society -> he was the leader of this hunt * Case study : The Korean War * Communism was getting stronger around the world * In 1949, China as their mainstay in Far East became communist (They pumped 2 billion dollars to support Nationalist but it didn't help) * They had a feeling communist countries act together to spread communism * Stalin used cominform to communist to get power in Malaya, Indonesia, Burma, Korea, Philippines * South Korea invaded in 1950 - time for action!!! Background * Korea had been ruled by Japan until 1945 * After WW2, North became communist with one-single party ruled by Kim Il Sung and South remained non-communist and was ruled by Syngman Rhee * In 1950 their hostility spilled over into open warfare * By September 1950 North Korea overwhelmed whole South Korea except of small corner of south east. * President Truman immediately sends supplies
Q1.What were the Superpower relations like between 1945 and 1959, before the Cuban Missile Crisis? The conflict of World War II against the Nazi Germany brought the Allied Nations, United States of America, England and the Soviet Union together to fight side by side. During the period of 1945 and 1959 these "Superpowers" were constantly trying to undermine each other. This alliance soon took its course to break down after bitter hatred against one another with the threat of thermal Nuclear War. The friendship that these countries once had led to rivalry whereby both sides tried to out do each other by any means possible. These countries stored weapons, and at the same time they were both in the process of developing atomic bombs with the technology they had. The end of World War II only marked the beginning of another war but this time it was even more severe, and these countries took it to extreme measures where mankind was at stake. The U.S and The Soviet Union provoked each other by making one another look underhanded, they did this by using propaganda, and any other such means to intermediate the other side, but the never came to blows, this was known as the cold war. Following the Yalta conference between Britain, America and the USSR on the fate of Germany, the leaders of both Britain and America had changed by the Potsdam conference later in 1945. The purpose
Were contemporaries correct in regarding President Kennedy as the savoir of the western world after the Cuban Missile Crisis?
Were contemporaries correct in regarding President Kennedy as the savoir of the western world after the Cuban Missile Crisis? During the 1950s and early 1960s the state of relations between the United States and Russian was poor. They were deep in a state of cold war; a strong feeling of mutual mistrust. At this period tensions reached new highs and this lead to a major arms race, especially where nuclear weapons were concerned. The soviets were almost desperate to keep up with the U.S. America was at a considerable advantage, they had a hydrogen bomb capable of 5 times the damage of the soviet atom bomb. The Americans had also created a nuclear powered submarine which they launched in 1955. Source A2 (ii) explains the submarines capabilities which the soviets feared so greatly, 'the vessel could stay submerged for very long periods, did not need air to function......, a submarine cruising at high speeds below the surface and for weeks on end'. America's new submarine was fitted with nuclear warheads although they weren't like others of their kind. Before the new Polaris missiles most submarines had to surface in order to fire, but Americas new missiles could be fired deep below the surface. Considering that the Soviets did not have the capabilities to track the submarine, America had major strategic advantages and this put them ahead in the arms race. The new
On 6th August 1945, a silverplate Boeing B-29 superfortress flew over the densely populated Japanese city of Hiroshima. The plane, ‘Enola Gay’, was carrying a highly radioactive atomic bomb containing the actinide Uranium-235. Hiroshima is the largest city in the Chugoku region of western Honshu, Japan’s largest island and used to be an embarkation port and industrial centre that was the site of a major military headquarters. The bomb, ‘Little boy’, is estimated to have killed approximately 90,000 – 166,000 people; around 30% of the population were killed instantaneously as their bodies were vaporised. Some bodies had viscera sucked out of them, while others were so badly mutilated from the effects of the bomb that it was hard to identify who was who. As always, there are two sides to every story. Many people argue that America’s actions were wrong; however the Americans believed that what they did was right. There are sources that both support and disagree with America’s action. In this essay I will explore these points and say why the bombing cannot be justified. Some people say that it was a justified decision to bomb Hiroshima. This is because America wanted revenge on Japan for Pearl Harbor. In an interview with James Byrnes, the American Secretary of State, 1965 he says, “We were talking about the people who hadn’t hesitated at Pearl Harbor to make