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GCSE: Exercise and Training

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What to think about when planning a warm up activity

  1. 1 Be clear of the purpose of the warm-up BEFORE you plan the content and adjust it accordingly.
  2. 2 Consider WHO you are planning the warm-up for - Is it an elite squad or a recreational group or a class of 7 year old children?
  3. 3 Consider WHAT activity or sport the warm-up is preparing the participants for as this should affect the content and focus of the warm-up.
  4. 4 Fun can be a central part of warming up. This can encourage motivation and mental readiness.
  5. 5 The coach or leader should know about any pre-existing injuries or medical conditions of the participants BEFORE they begin the physical elements of a warm-up.

Why are warm ups important?

  1. 1 Before any flexibility work, participants should be thoroughly warmed up. This will involve physical movement to generate an increase in temperature.
  2. 2 The intensity of the warm-up should be gradually increase. Too severe an intensity too soon will increase the risk of muscular injury (strain or muscle tear). Conside muscles to be like plasticine that once warmed, it is more pliable and stretchy.
  3. 3 Your joints also need mobilizing. The movement and temperature increases the availability of synovial fluid, the lubricating oily fluid in synovial joints such as knees and ankle.
  4. 4 Include some basic and simple skills (eg passing) within the warm-up. This will increase the level of preparedness of the muscles and joints.
  5. 5 Warm-up activities can be cooperative which will develop a team ethos or competitive (be cautious as this may cause participants to work too intensely).

Flexibility as part of a warm up

  1. 1 There are a variety of forms of flexibility training, including : static active, static passive, ballistic, dynamic & PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.
  2. 2 Historically, the most common ways of stretching have been static active – this is where you move into a position (stretch) and your muscles hold you in that position for up to around 10secs.
  3. 3 Static passive stretching involves an object (a wall, a fence, a hurdle) or a person (partner holding your leg / arm) holding your muscle in a certain stretch.
  4. 4 Due to evidence that static stretching can reduce the power output of that muscle for a period after the stretching, the more current method of flexibility is dynamic stretching. This involves moving under control through a range of movement (eg walking lunges or controlled arm circles) in order to increase the range of movement. Ballistic flexibility is a faster and more dangerous version of this.
  5. 5 PNF is very effective, and relies on good communication between the partners. PNF involves overriding or inhibiting a protective stretch reflex (that is in place to reduce the stretch allowed by a muscle) and allowing the muscle to stretch further.

  • Marked by Teachers essays 3
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  1. My aims for the Personal Exercise Program are that I intend to concentrate mainly on improving my cardiovascular endurance and my muscular endurance.

    Section 2; Aims of PEP; Yours aims of the PEP is the most important, so you know exactly what you what to get out of this, and you don't back track. My aims for the Personal Exercise Program are that I intend to concentrate mainly on improving my cardiovascular endurance and my muscular endurance. Because these components of health related fitness were identified as weaknesses by my fitness testing and they are important for general health and well as my sporting performance in Fitness.

    • Word count: 4070
  2. Sports Science Controlled Assessment - analysisng my health and fitness. How I can improve.

    * Sit Ups - I managed 40 sit-ups in one minute, which rated average when compared nationally. This also tests muscular endurance, one of my strengths. * Stork Test - I recorded 40 seconds for this test, which is average for my age and gender. This is good for me as balance is not one of my strengths, and is still something that I can improve upon. * Multistage Fitness Test - I scored 9.0, which is average for my age and gender. Although I have more slow twitch muscle fibres, and the test is for muscular endurance, I do not have enough fast twitch fibres for the advanced levels of the test.

    • Word count: 3126
  3. PEP to improve my speed and agility for rugby.

    I feel my fitness level is reasonably good. I have no long term illness such as Asthma. I only have one reoccurring injury. My back is a tong term posture problem witch can affect me with my training due to discomfit to the lumbar (lower back). This can effect and restrict the intensity I can do during the training session, toward the end. The physiotherapist has analysed my back and diagnosed it as a posture problem; therefore has produces a programme with stretches and exercises to strengthen my back and correct my posture.

    • Word count: 5026
  4. Analysis of tactics

    Set Plays - Set plays- these are also called set pieces. They can be used strategically. There are many different types of set pieces, such as corners, free kicks, throwing etc. set plays * Throwing - Experienced teams will not just throw the ball to anyone they will throw it tactically to a team mate. These can be very useful as they are either thrown long or short. For example, some footballers will through the ball more than 30 yards.

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  5. AQA PE GCSE coursework

    My current level of health: I do not suffer from any persistent illnesses and at the moment I have no injuries that will affect me when doing the circuit training. This means I will be able to get an accurate set of results. My current level of fitness: I already exercise and have a fairly high level of general fitness. General fitness concerns the day-to-day working of the body. This is sometimes called health related fitness because it helps to keep you healthy.

    • Word count: 3250
  6. My target is to do 5 training sessions to improve my speed and muscle power. I want to improve my speed to complete a whole rounder regularly and to get to the next base safely by being quicker when playing rounders.

    I need good cardio-vascular endurance so that I could keep playing the rounders for a long time without getting tired. So my aim is to improve my cardio-vascular endurance up to 8.0 after training, by using a lot of water during it. My score before training for agility is 20.15 seconds. I need good agility so I can run fast base to base, changing direction at speed. My aim is to improve my agility by decreasing my time to 18.5 seconds. The arrows with the pictures are showing that in which position which muscle is stretching. Gastrocnemius muscles is stretching.

    • Word count: 3135
  7. PEP - The programme will help to develop my running skills further, as it is specific to running. I will take into account my current fitness

    This means that I will get accurate results. I don't have any injuries or any health problems. But if I increase my activities a lot I will hurt my self. My muscles will be so tired they might rip a lot but wont repair as quickly, some could take a month. State what targets you expect to achieve by the end of the 5 sessions in terms of aspects of fitness/skills you want to improve. The programme will help to develop my running skills further, as it is specific to running.

    • Word count: 3941
  8. Personal Exercise Plan

    Fitness Test 3: Press-up Test: * This test measures the ability of my biceps and triceps muscles to work without getting tired. * This aspect is relevant to my activity because both of these muscles would have to be worked for a long period of time especially when batting or when bowling constantly. Raw Score: 15 * Compared to the rest of the class this was just below average, meaning that the ability of my biceps and triceps to work many times without getting tired is slightly less the others in my class.

    • Word count: 4950
  9. will be looking at all the different skills and fitness components needed to perform, and to play at the peak of a sport. As well as this, I will also be looking at strengths and weaknesses in a sport and practises needed in order to improve your performa

    This will overall lead to our team losing the match. Heading is another skill needed in football and if done properly, it can be effective with both attacking and defending. This is used when the ball is in the air and you want to get to it first by using your head. It is useful when your team has a corner or a team mate is going to cross the ball to you. In both of these situations, if you head the ball and direct it accurately towards goal, chances are you will score a goal.

    • Word count: 3911
  10. Physical Activity & Sailing in Australian Society

    These results came to show that from those surveyed, 90% participated in some form of physical activity, which is larger than the state average of 26% ([2] Involvement in Organised Sport and Physical Activity [Online]). This local research also came to show that males were more likely to be involved in physical activity than females (as shown in Appendix B). Again from local research, it was observed that commonly it was males and females in the age group 70+ who didn't participate in any physical sport.

    • Word count: 5461
  11. The skills and techniques required for an opening bowler in Cricket is the knowledge of the essential rules of the sport.

    The demands of the sports are also a vital requirement for a bowler, such as line and length. This is accuracy of where to pitch the ball- Full, Good and Short length. Also the situation of the game depends on how to bowl the perfect bowl (e.g. Yorker at the end of the innings in a one day match.). Other demands of Cricket are to be change direction (flexibility) and speed. This is very essential to become a great bowler.

    • Word count: 5712
  12. Free essay

    The date of observing Michael Burnley will start in September 2005. The sport that I will be teaching Michael will be Rugby League that will cover a wide range of skills needed to play Rugby.

    Opposing players would identify a player that is struggling and target the weakness in the side, letting the standard of the team performance fall. Support - this is important in rugby as if you are up with play and you are supporting the man with the ball it gives the ball carrier options and you will score if the man with the ball passes to you. SAQ - Speed, Agility, Quickness Speed - this is a very important skill in rugby because if you can break the defensive line you have speed to be able to accelerate away from the defence and score.

    • Word count: 3016
  13. P/E Games candidate

    Purpose: Handgrip strength is important for any sport where the hands are used in a variety of ways e.g. throwing or catching. A general rule is that people with strong hands tend to be stronger in other areas. Description: You hold the dynamometer in one hand in line with the forearm and hanging down by the thigh. Athlete must not swing their arm. Best of 3 is taken forward. The advantages were: Simple test of general strength. The disadvantages were: Dynamometer should be adjusted according to hand size as this will affect accuracy.

    • Word count: 5960
  14. P.e.p I will be looking at how to improve myself in Football.

    Evaluation: Before I do any task in my PEP I will firstly measure my heart rate for about 15 seconds and time its by 4 to get my BPM (beats per minute), The PEP that I will do in my p.e classes will be based on improving my stamina and my muscular endurance by undertaking either a bleep test or doing the circuit training. After the bleep test or my circuit training I would measure my heart rate again to find out my bpm after exercise.

    • Word count: 3333
  15. Hill walking draft 1 - Aayushmaan

    Thus hill walking is an acitivity that provides leisurely enjoyment, recreation as well as various health benefits that can improve a person's overall fitness and aerobic capability. REQUIRED FITNESS COMPONENTS General Fitness Strengths Why they are important... Cardiovascular fitness This is the ability to exercise the body for long periods of time. The cardiovascular means heart and blood vessels. These areas interdependent to get oxygen into the body, distribute it and get carbon-dioxide out. An efficient cardiovascular systems results in good stamina; which was important during the treks since their duration was almost as long as the daylight hours of

    • Word count: 5143
  16. physical education.

    It's important for footballers but particularly my position because midfielder's need to run for long period of time. To last for the full 90 minutes requires lots of stamina to get from side of the pitch to the other and back very quickly. Agility. It's important for defenders because they need to change direction quickly and to run up the pitch constantly using all the various muscle groups. Speed. It's important for footballers who play up front because you can speed up to a loose or a long ball and run at defenders. Unless you are quick enough to catch attacking players size and strength alone will not make a quality defender.

    • Word count: 3028
  17. Analysis of perfromer

    Having that extra strength gives you the advantage against other players and enables to position yourself. This is done by boxing out (sometimes referred to as blocking out). Boxing out is where you position your self between the basket and another player and push them away by backing into them therefore you have to be close to the basket at all times. Strength is needed so that you can protect the ball after a missed shot. It's important to rebound so that the other team does not get another chance of scoring and offensively you create another opportunity for your team to score.

    • Word count: 3015
  18. PEP - netball

    heart rate CV Fitness Sergeant Jump Measure the distance between highest reach and level gained by jumping as high as possible Power Sit and Reach Measure the distance you can reach past your toes when sat down, with legs straight Flexibility Illinois Agility Run Measure the time taken to run around a set course in and out of cones Agility Abdominal Curl test Count the number of sit-ups you can do in one minute Muscular Endurance Press up test Count the number of press ups you can do in one minute Muscular Endurance 30m sprint Time taken to run 30m Speed Rate your own level of fitness and explain your rating (Excellent, Very Good, Good, Average, Poor and Very poor)

    • Word count: 4169
  19. P.E. assignment

    When a ball is kicked behind the line of goal, it shall be kicked off from that line by one of the side whose goal it is. 8. No player may stand within six paces of the kicker when he is kicking off. 9. A player is 'out of play' immediately he is in front of the ball and must return behind the ball as soon as possible. If the ball is kicked by his own side past a player, he may not touch or kick it, or advance, until one of the other side has first kicked it,

    • Word count: 3047
  20. Attacking Weaknesses.

    There is also more chance that because the hand is being forced back into the water, because of the late turn of the head that catch will be missed or be late and the elbow will drop. The elbow will come in line with or below the hand rather than remaining high for a powerful pull 2. Elbow It is important when performing front crawl to keep a high elbow as it generates more power when going through the water.

    • Word count: 4578
  21. Personal Fitness Coursework

    to which muscles can apply force * Body Composition - How the body is made up of bone, muscle and fat * Cardiovascular Fitness - the heart's ability to deliver oxygen to working muscles and to use it The other aspects of fitness, which are Skill, related fitness: * Speed - The time in which a distance is covered in a short period of time. * Power - The ability to exert muscle contraction instantly in an explosive burst of movements. * Agility - The ability to change direction and movement quickly, and still keep control of the whole body.

    • Word count: 8314
  22. Health-related Exercise/Training Program

    * I work as a temporary (back-up) employee for a local pet shop at the weekend, working for 6 hours * Tennis for 2 hours at the weekend on random occasions In total I am active for well over 10 hours a week - a high proportion of my available leisure time. This is also includes the mental 'stimulation' for the brain with homework and reading etc. Awareness of safety considerations: When planning my personal exercise programme I must consider every safety aspect; so that no one, including myself, is hurt or injured in any way.

    • Word count: 3461
  23. AQA GCSE PE Training Programme

    Resources needed: Marked 20 metre running area 'Bleep' test Recording Notepad to record level It is expected that after carrying out my training session I will reach a higher level in the bleep test as my fitness should have increased. Safety > Warm up before exercise and cool down after exercise > Correct equipment & clothing > No Chewing > No food and Drink > No jewellery > Tied Laces > Must alternate muscles/areas being targeted Warm up's are a vital part of a training programme, they loosen and warm the muscles to help to prevent injuries and they also prepare you psychologically.

    • Word count: 3260
  24. GCSE physical education coursework

    a good reaction time when the ball rebounds off the goal post as she is in a Goal Attack position she most probably will come across a lot of rebounds, quick reacting time is needed so she can quickly jump for the ball.. - Agility Sana needs to be agile, she needs to have the ability to move in a controlled way and change direction, turn, stop and start quickly. Sana needs to be able to adjust her feet quickly in order to adopt a particular body position prior to making a quick turn or pass.

    • Word count: 3275
  25. Netball study - P.E coursework

    WD Her responsibility is to stop the ball getting to the oppositions shooting area. She must be good at intercepting passes. A good WD should be good at controlling the ball. She should be good at marking to prevent the WA feeding it to her shooters. GD Her job is to win the ball, and stop it going into the defending area as much as possible to prevent the opposition from scoring goals. She must be a good marker and stay close to the GA. She must be alert so she can collect rebounds and intercept passes so that she can get the ball back down the court into her attacking area.

    • Word count: 10958

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Compare the fitness requirements of three public services.

    "To conclude my analysis of the fire services physical fitness test has featured all the main tests used by the fire service and tried to explain why they have been chosen. The number of job related tests are considerable when compared to other public services I have investigated. With this in mind I feel that, although the tasks in the training period are well thought and structured, there should be some sort of physical tests done by all fire fighters to constantly evaluate their fitness levels. My recommendation would be to have these tests once a year and fire fighters who fail to meet the standard would complete the probationary training period again to prove their motivation and commitment to the important role they play in the public service industry."

  • The Shows in the Coliseum Were Blood Thirst but Noble Contests. To What Extent is this a fair description of Gladiatorial Fights?

    "Gladiatorial shows, were often accompanied by souvenirs and the like, which in my opinion degrades Gladiators from noble sportsmen, to lifeless entertainers. This paired with the fact that they were often hired as entertainment at a dinner party, takes away the nobility. Also taking away from the nobleness is that there were non-related, less noble activities associated with, and inspired by Gladiatorial fights, gambling and prostitution to name but two. Gladiatorial shows were often considered by the emperor as a political weapon to manipulate the people, which is a shame. To conclude by today's standards the shows do seem extremely blood thirsty and due to this not noble. However in Rome, Blood and nobility were not necessarily contradictions, the Gladiatorial shows were certainly not as bloodthirsty as certain other forms of Roman entertainment, e.g. the midday executions. The fights themselves as a formal sport seem quite noble, but when looked at from the perspective of cult entertainment the nobility is lessened. In the gladiator fights the main focus was on skill and not blood. Although death was of course a possibility, the likelihood is that the majority of the time a good gladiator would live to die another day."

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