Earth Summits are all talk and no action Do you agree?
'Earth Summits are all talk and no action' Do you agree? An Earth Summit is a global conference where political leaders of each country decide the best way to look after the Earth and to live a sustainable life. These political leaders are of different religions, cultures and backgrounds so their views will differ and sometimes, there is no result to Earth Summits. This essay will question if Earth Summits help us to look after the Earth or if they truly are 'all talk'. On one hand, people may disagree with the statement because over the recent decades, we have become more aware of increasing damage to the environment and a widening global gap between the rich and the poor. Governments have learnt ways to become more sustainable and have many policies that show this. They also promote a clear understanding of, and commitment to, sustainable development so that all people can contribute to the overall goal through their individual decisions. There are also some religious views that disagree with the statement. A Christian might disagree because they believe in stewardship and by attending Earth Summits people are trying to look after God's sacred Earth. Although the Earth Summits may have minimal results, the world is trying to agree on a view that will improve the quality of life for future generations. Christians believe that we are looking after the planet for God -
Usefulness of Philosophy
Philosophy of Discipline Philosophy is to be studied, not for the sake of any definite answers to its questions, since no definite answers, can, as a rule, be known to be true, but rather for the questions themselves. -- BERTRAND RUSSELL Zhao Yue (34) 3.11 Elisha What is philosophy? It is a question troubling the philosophers ever since philosophy was first studied. That is a question we cannot answer, but we do know that philosophy will guide us to the quest for knowledge. The knowledge of philosophy can enhance analytical, critical and interpretive capacities that are applicable to any subject-matter. When we read Japanese Manga, we often see the characters cry out the question "Why?" We would often only be told of how the Manga characters were able to advance not because they found the answer to the question but realized that to answer these questions, they have to work harder. This is the basic form of philosophy. The questions are, of course, never answered, but the process of trying to answer them is the beginning of knowledge. The current generation of youth, such as ourselves, are obsessed with finding answer to everything as a result of today's education system. Indeed, the subjects taught in school: Languages, Mathematics, Sciences and Humanities, all require us to obtain the answer in order to pass the exam. Those who focus their mind and soul to getting the
Analyse Aristotle's Causes (Aitiai)
Unlike his teacher, Plato 428-347BC, Aristotle 384-322BC did not believe in 'The World Of Forms' and therefore the idea that everything could be measured using it's 'Perfect Form'. Aristotle's ideas were based on what we experience whereas Plato's ideas were based on a world beyond that of what we see. Aristotle wanted to examine what it meant for something to be real, and this is how he formed his ideas of the four causes. His theory was based on knowledge that was acquired through experience He wrote in his book 'Metaphysics' that he believed that everything in this world has four reasons for being and a definite purpose. He said that each thing had four reasons which explained what, why and how they were; these reasons were what he called The Four Causes. The Four Causes are: 1. The Material Cause - what a thing is made of i.e. metal, wood etc., 2. The Efficient Cause - how it came into being, i.e. what/who made it, 3. The Formal Cause - what characteristics does it have that makes it what it is and finally 4. The Final Cause -why was it made? The Final Cause of something could also be called its purpose, its aim or goal and it is essentially 'What it's made for'. This is the cause which Aristotle believed to be the most important. For example, here are the Four Causes of a chair; its Material Cause would be wood, its Efficient Cause would be a carpenter, its Formal
It cannot be true that there is life after death, because there is no evidence for it. Do you agree? You must refer to one religion in your answer.
'It cannot be true that there is life after death, because there is no evidence for it.' Do you agree? You must refer to one religion in your answer. I do not believe that the statement "it cannot be true that there is life after death because there is no evidence for it" is true. I doubt it on the grounds that it can be stated that there is life after death because there is no evidence that there isn't! In this essay I will justify this belief and will explain what the major religions all say on this matter. Christianity says that there is an afterlife but proposes no evidence for this. Also the historic nature of the bible and the differences in interpretation also hinder its scientific validity. This is also the case with the Quran therefore these two religious texts bear no scientific evidence to show there exists an after life. There are cases of near death experiences where people die and come back to life and they say they have seen dead relatives or family members. There are also cases where people die and see a white light. But why are these guarantees of an afterlife? These both could be a feature of the human brain and how its function. It does not mean that there is an after life. There are also sightings of ghosts or dead family members. Yet there is still no scientific evidence for sightings of ghosts. So where does this leave us? Well lack of evidence
Religion Essay - Aboriginal The relationship between Aboriginal spatiality and the connection of the land is based upon the dreaming and the occupation of the land for 40,000 years. For a long time now aboriginal people have lived on the land and the inhabitants have been incorporated into their spirituality. The dreaming is the integral part of aboriginal religion and refers to events about the dreaming and ancestral beings formed within the land which also created life on the land. It is also important as it is the way the Aboriginal people express their way of life and their spirituality as the land is a link to the Dreaming. The dreaming is fundamental to aboriginal beliefs and spirituality because it is the centre to aboriginal religion and life. It is portrayed in many ways these follow, art, song, mythology, stories and rituals. Dreaming is the past, present and future. It is Aboriginal people's religious framework and their worldview. The Dreaming is the concept which is the underpinning of beliefs and practices of the Aboriginal People and their communities. It is therefore important because it defines the relationships and responsibilities for all Aboriginal people. The dreaming is the explanation of why the land is the critical expression of Aboriginal spirituality. The land is where the dreaming stories are taken place and is the resting place of the ancestral
Sima Qian and Bias
EALC 110 Professor Hayden Michael Day May 1, 2008 Records of the Grand Historian: Sima Qian and Bias The fact that history contains errors will not come as news to someone who has reflected on the topic. What is more disturbing however is that our history may be wrong and that there are great gaps in it. Maybe we have failed to record and gather the events that make up the fabric of history. It is little events, strung together and accumulated over time, which account for our place in history. This leads to the issue of an unbiased history, which is of utmost value. However, there is no such thing as an unbiased history. These biases may be blatant and as such are willful distortions of the past, resonating the inevitable fact that history is the propaganda of the winners. Beyond that, there are the cultural biases in history. A definition of "bias" is crucial to further understanding this issue. The usual implication of the term "bias" is that one is either deliberately or involuntarily ignoring some of the relevant facts. In this way, a historian can influence how the readers perceive a given period of history by what he or she has chosen to include and omit. Thus, a record of history not only provides information of the past, but it also serves as a reflection of the historian's own perceptions. This is not just a modern phenomenon, but has been a part of the history
Plato on Epistemology
How do I know what I know? Question 1: Which main questions, concepts, and theories of epistemology are dealt with by your selected philosopher? As a rationalist, Plato challenges inquiries of "what we know how we know" by centralizing the human mind (conscience and thought) as the essence of knowledge. Plato often debates using his deceased mentor, Socrates, to honour Socrates' reputation as a valuable teacher. True knowledge can be rediscovered deep within the mind; otherwise known as the World of Forms. He shows evidence of innate ideas in Platonic Doctrine of Recollection. In Plato's book Republic he writes about the distinctions between knowledge and personal opinion. He uses numerous concepts and metaphors such as metaphor of the sun, the divided line, and the Allegory in the Cave. Plato theorized that seeking knowledge is independent from the physical world (world perceived by senses), there are two distinct worlds that reflect each other. "The domain where truth and reality shine resplendent," (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metaphor_of_the_sun) is the World of Forms, Plato predicts, which is within your mind and sustains perfection; whereas, our sensory perception is linked to the visible world (the physical world). In the physical world of changing objects Plato sees it as "Everything in this world is always becoming something else, but nothing permanently is."
Topic 5 - Good and Evil
TOPIC FIVE - Good and Evil * The nature of good and evil, and its origins: - Good from God, benevolence - Evil from original sin, devil, free will, theodicy of Augustine (soul deciding), theodicy of Irenaeus (soul making), strength, hope from suffering of Jesus, God suffers alongside, life after death and God beyond human understanding - Two types of evil: moral and natural * Christian beliefs about God and the Devil: - Devil initially one of Gods helpers - Became jealous so rebelled - God expelled him and he set up his home in hell - Aim is to undermine God at every possibility (Genesis 3, Job, and Matthew 4) - Disguised as snake who tempted Eve (brought original sin into the world) * The Christian responses to the problem of evil and suffering: - Evil from original sin, devil, free will, theodicy of Augustine (soul deciding), theodicy of Irenaeus (soul making), strength, hope from suffering of Jesus, God suffers alongside, life after death and God beyond human understanding * How Jesus suffered, and how his suffering helps Christians: - Christians feel they are having some kind of connection to him when they suffer - He died to save us and suffered the most, what we suffer is not the same so shouldn't complain * How Christians cope with suffering: - Jesus died for us, cope - Suffering in this life is inconsequential because heaven is perfect - It is a way
Concepts of Beauty in Philosophy
There are many different perceptions of beauty. Some believe that beauty comes from within; some believe that it is simplicity, and some believe it lies in perfection. I am going to explore some of the more famous concepts of beauty from philosophers prior to the Renaissance. I believe that in any study of philosophy, Plato is a good starting point. Plato expressed his beliefs on the topic of beauty in his text 'Symposium'. The general theme in 'Symposium' is love. Socrates sets forth his view through a conversation with Diotima of Mantineia, who believes that you should be taught to appreciate and love true beauty. The theory is as follows. At an early age, you should be taught to love beauty represented by a beautiful body, a human body. When this is realised, you can see that this body shares beauty with other beautiful bodies and this becomes the basis of loving all beautiful bodies and not just one. Then the learner should realise that the beauty of souls is superior to the beauty of bodies. The second stage is to love beautiful practises and customs and to recognise that all beautiful customs share a certain charm, or beauty. Then, the learner should recognise beauty in all different kinds of knowledge. Socrates thinks that the final stage should be experiencing beauty itself as something not embodied by anything physical or spiritual. In 'Symposium', Plato draws a
What does it mean to be alive?
What does it mean to be alive? It is an odd question that, when thought about, really does curtail you. What is the definition of alive? Can one thing be more alive than another? If a list of objects were given, for example: the universe, the world, a human, a piece of paper, a tree, a thought, tomorrow, a person that is anatomically dead. Which would be more alive? The Universe, because it contains everything else? Or a thought because it assigns that very value to the Universe? A piece of paper more than a tree, because it has the potential to have something incredible drawn or written on it, and thus contains the life poured into it? Is tomorrow alive? It motivates action, so where does it go on the list? What about the dead person, are they alive? What if that person was Beethoven, or another famous musician or person in history. Do they live through the legacy of their actions? It's a question so convoluted by arbitrary criteria, and a lack of a definitive 'dead' as a contrast. Because Alive is subjective to individual interpretation, there can be no perfect answer in the frame of the question. The best possible answer is in the terms and ideas of each individual. The question of what it means to be alive is superseded by the ability to give meaning to life. There is no answer except that each individual has their own answer, and any given answer's perfection is