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GCSE: Patterns of Behaviour
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Hence this increases the chances that more collisions will have enough energy to reach the transition state. In general a 10C increase in temperature will double the rate of reaction. > Concentration: This means the number of moles per unit volume (i.e. per dm3). As we increase the concentration, we increase the number of particles per unit volume. The particles are now closer together, so there are more collisions per unit time. Hence increasing the chances that more collisions will reach the top of the activation energy to form products. In General: Rate ? concentration (As concentration doubles rate doubles).
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There are many factors that can change how fast a normal reaction between chemicals occurs. These factors can be the reactants size of particle, the concentration of reactants in solution, temperature, surface area, and pressure, presence of light and the addition of a catalyst. The factor in this experiment that I will be investigating is the concentration of the sodium thiosulphate. Concentration means how much water is combined with the substance, concentration can also be known as the molarity. A reaction takes place when two particles from different chemicals are moving around as they have kinetic energy and then they collide.
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* A higher Temperature increases the rate of reaction because the particles have more energy so they move faster, which also casuses more effective collisions. * A larger surface area increases the rate of reaction because there is more exposed to the acid so there are again more effective collisions. * There are catalysts, which increase the rate of reaction because a catalyst is another kind of solute. From the simulation program The reaction I simulated was: HCL + CaCO3 This is very similar to magnesium and sulphuric acid because it is an acis and a metal.
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Controlled Variables 1 The cross-drawn on paper that we use to see how long it takes for it to disappear when the Hydrochloric acid is added to the Sodium Thiosulphate. 2 The room temperature 3 If we have to carry on our experiment to the next day, We will try and use the same apparatus that we had used the day before to ensure a fair test. 4 The volume of Hydrochloric acid. 5 The volume of Sodium Thiosulphate. Prediction I predict that as we raise the temperature of the acid, the reaction will speed up.
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In conclusion, we can say that concentration increase when the rate of reaction is increase. Temperature The low the temperature, slows down the reactions. As molecules travel faster, there are more collisions in a certain time. Therefore, the reactions get faster as raising the temperature. Sometimes colliding particles just bounce of each other and they do not bang very hard because they do not have enough energy. In higher temperature, the particles are moving faster. They crash together faster and that's why more collision produces a reaction. When gases or liquids are heated, the particles gain kinetic energy and move faster.
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How different variables will affect the rate of a reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric acid.
The particles need what is called activation energy. A successful collision is a collision when the particles colliding have activation energy and the bonds which are already there are broken and new bonds are formed. VARIABLES TEMPERATURE: The temperature of the liquids will affect the rate of reaction because the hotter the particles are the more energy they will have and therefore the more likely they are to have activation energy. This would then mean that the rate of reaction would be faster because more of the particles will be colliding successfully.
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Gcse Chemistry/Biology Joint Investigation the Decomposition of H2o2 Using Catalase In Yeast As a Catalyst
We collected a result after every 30 seconds. The results were as follows: Time (sec) O2 Produced (cm�) 30 5 60 7 90 11 120 13 150 17 180 19 This amount of Hydrogen Peroxide didn't give very good results so we re-did the experiment with 10cm� of H2O2 instead. These are the results we got: Time (sec) O2 Produced (cm�) 30 17 60 32 90 44 120 52 150 57 180 59 These results are much better but the space between each result will not be easy to plot on a graph and will not give a very smooth curve, which is what I am expecting.
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Rate is a measure of the change that happens in a single unit of time. For example, if a car travels 40 km in half an hour, it is travelling at 80 km/h. For a chemical reaction to take place, some bonds in the reactants must be broken. The colliding particles must have enough energy to break these bonds. This minimum amount of energy is called the activation energy. Only the very fastest moving particles have enough energy to break bonds. In gases, liquids and in solution, the particles move at a range of speeds.
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How does varying the concentration of Hydrochloric acid in reaction with Marble chips affect the rate of Carbon Dioxide being given off?
CaCl2 + H2O + CO2? Plan: When an experiment is carried out, records of pervious experiments are taken into account. This type of information is called "Preliminary data", it is used to get a general picture of what the outcome should look like, it can also be used to predict the general behaviour of the experiment. Preliminary data shows that when the temperature is constant then the increase is constant (a graph from preliminary data used is included). A table of the data is below.
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Investigation into how concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of reaction with marble chips.
Therefore more particles would have sufficient energy. This could result in a faster rate of reaction. The concentration of the hydrochloric acid would control the numbers of particles in the solutions. The higher the concentration the more particles, this indicates more collisions and a faster rate of reaction. Doubling the concentration doubles how fast the reaction goes. Diagram 2 Equation: Calcium Carbonate + Hydrochloric acid = Water + Carbon Dioxide + Calcium chloride Aim We are going to investigate how different concentrations of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of reaction with marble chips.
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Investigate the factors, which affect the rate of reaction between Calcium carbonate and Hydrochloric acid.
* Concentration of hydrochloric acid- this is the proportion of hydrochloric acid in the solution. This affects the rate of reaction because you could be increasing the amount of hydrogen ions and chloride ions in the solution, which again increases the likelihood that more successful collisions will occur therefore the rate of reaction will be faster. * Temperature- the temperature adds energy to the reaction an affects how quickly the particles move. By doing this temperature affects the number of affective collisions the more affective collisions that occur the faster the reaction. To make this a fair test we will have to keep all variables the same except the one we are investigating.
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(for more on this directly proportional theory see below) I think that as the concentration is increased the rate of reaction will increase because there will be a higher number of hydrochloric acid molecules moving around in the same space, therefore there is a higher chance of a acid molecule colliding and reacting with a magnesium molecule. At lower concentrations there will be fewer acid molecules moving around, therefore less chance of collisions and reactions, so the overall reaction will be slower.
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How Does Rate of Concentration Affect the Rate of Reaction Between Marble Chips and Hydrochloric Acid?
Trusting the thermostat or central heating of the classroom, it should be kept at a regular temperature, suitable for a working environment. * Volume of acid - this must be a controlled variable also, but should be in excess otherwise the rate of reaction cannot be measured if all the acid reacted before all the marble had reacted, we would never know where in the reaction the acid ran out. * How we measure the rate of reaction - several methods were tried in our preliminary investigations, we tried using a boiling tube upturned and submerged, so that when the gas was tubed into it the water was displaced by carbon dioxide from the reaction.
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I will take the necessary precautions to keep the surface area of the pieces of marble approximately the same. The differences in surface area will alter my results if they are not kept at roughly the same size. A large piece of marble chip will have a smaller surface area than of four pieces that weigh the same as the large piece in total. The greater the surface area the higher the chance of collision and therefore the higher the chance of reactions as there is more room for the reaction to take place. (See figure 2 for further information).
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At a higher concentration collisions are again more frequent, as there are more reactant particles in the liquid. Increase surface are of the solid again increases the frequency of collision between reacting particles, as the liquid reactant has greater contact with the solid one. Adding a catalyst can also increase the rate of reaction, but there is not one used in this experiment. Light intensity: Light intensity can have a very small affect on a reaction. Aim My aim is to investigate the affect on the volume of carbon dioxide gas produced inside a time limit if I vary the concentration (mol)
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To investigate the factors that affect the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate (marble chips) and hydrochloric acid
2. The concentration of a reactant in the solution is increased, or the pressure of a gas is increased. There are more particles of a reactant, and so collisions are more frequent. Gas particles are more closely packed together with a higher pressure, and so this increases the collision rate. 3. The surface area of a solid reactant is increased. By breaking up a solid reactant, the surface area increases and so more particles are available for useful collisions. 4. A specific catalyst is added, or in living cells, the production of enzymes. Catalysts and enzymes give reacting particles a surface that they can attach to in order to increase the number of collisions.
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To investigate the effects of change of concentration on rate of reaction - between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochoric Acid
For a reaction to occur between molecules, bonds must be broken before they can form new bonds. For this to occur there must be energy involved. This is called the activation energy. Concentration - the measurement of a solute dissolved in a solvent expressed in moles (see below) per dm�� Mole (Mol) -The SI unit of the amount of a substance. One mole contains the same number of particles as there are atoms in 12 grams of the carbon-12 isotope.
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Investigation into the factors that effect the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid
The more energy the reactants have, the faster they move around, therefore increasing the chance of colliding into one another and having a successful collision. Also, the more energy they get from the heat, the more particles have enough energy to react. This is called activation energy. Generally, the greater the temperature, the faster the rate of a reaction. The rate doubles every 10�C. Surface area: the greater the surface area of the reactants, the more particles are available, therefore the greater the likelihood of a successful collision occurring.
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More collisions are successful because the particles pass the activation energy necessary for the reaction. For a reaction to occur: Reactant particles must collide. Collisions must have the minimum activation energy. The Rate of Reaction is increased by: Concentration/Pressure Surface Area Catalyst Temperature Concentration/Pressure More particles in the same space. ?More collisions ?More successful collisions and a faster reaction. Fig.1.a low conc. Fig.1.b high conc. As you can see in figure 1.a there are much less atoms than in figure 2. More atoms in figure 1.b so it is much more likely that atoms may collide.
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and (time in seconds) 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30 34 38 2 3 8 13 18 23 28 33 38 43 48 3 4 10 16 22 28 34 40 46 52 58 Graph, showing an increase in rate, with an increase in concentration. Variables Although I am investigating how the effect of the concentration of the hydrochloric acid affects the rate of its reaction with marble, there are other factors that may also affect
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be set up as shown in this diagram: - To work out what size marble chips to use in the investigation, I did some preliminary work. I needed to know what size marble chips/powder would give the best reaction times in the acid. I added four different marble chip sizes (9-12mm, 6mm, 2-4mm, powder) to an equal amount of 2M acid and measured how much gas was given off after 1 minute, 2 minutes and 3 minutes. I recorded my results in this table.
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The Rate of a chemical reaction is equal to a rate constant multiplied by the molar concentration of each reactant raised to the power equal to the rate order. For example if we have a chemical process defined in the following manner: On Next Page Continuation A + B ----> C According to the Rate Law: Rate = k [A]m [B]n where: k = rate constant m = rate order in respect to A n = rate order in respect to B (http://edie.cprost.sfu.ca/~rhlogan)
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