• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Vehicle Anti-lock Braking Systems

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Transfer-Encoding: chunked ________________ With approximately 8.8 million registered motor vehicles in Australia as at 31 January 2017[1] the operating systems used to optimise user safety and the safety of other road users is becoming increasingly more sophisticated and necessary. One of these systems, the anti-Lock braking system (ABS), allows a car to stop in a shorter distance and maintain more control by applying the brakes in repeated bursts to maintain friction between the tire and the road. ABS is now prevalent in many motor vehicles, specifically the car. In cars without ABS, to avoid collisions the break is applied onto the brake pads for a continuous period of time causing the wheels to stop rotating. When the wheels of a vehicle lock, they are no longer rotating along the road, loose traction and instead begin to slide, causing a decrease in friction between the wheels and road[2]. Friction between two objects is a force that opposes movement of one object over the other. Under these circumstances, friction opposes the movement of the vehicle?s wheels along the road. ...read more.

Middle

System Overview As the break is applied a hydraulic disc brake system inside the vehicle transmits this pressure to the brake pads in each wheel in order to slow or stop the vehicle. By using an incompressible fluid such as breaking oil the pressure is transmitted through the system by pistons which are short cylinders in a tube moving against a fluid[7] (figure 2). This system is a result of foundation work done by Pascal. Pascal?s principle states that ?Pressure applied at any point of a fluid at rest is transmitted without loss to all other parts of the fluid.? [8] Diagram B2. Hydraulic disc brake system showing a cross-section of the master cylinder and caliper. The following equations outlines the change in force from when pressure is applied by the first piston to when it acts on the second piston. where Pascal?s principle states that pressure will not change and therefore area is the measurement that affects force[9]. This equation shows that if area decreases the force applied must decrease in order for pressure to remain the same. ...read more.

Conclusion

Due to static friction being stronger than kinetic, static friction has a higher coefficient and therefore higher coefficients give shorter stopping distances. The coefficient of static and kinetic friction on dry roads being 1 and 0.8 respectively (Boal, 2001) further proves that maintaining the existing static friction when attempting sudden stops is more efficient than changing to kinetic friction. Surfaces µ (static) µ (kinetic) Tire on concrete 1.00 0.80 Tire on wet road 0.60 0.40 Tire on snow 0.30 0.20 As the vehicles normal force remains constant the impact of a smaller coefficient means that there is less frictional force. Data provided by Ben Townsend shows that in many circumstances[10] the coefficient of static friction is higher than that of kinetic friction (table 1). For example let us assume that we have a car with ABS and a total mass of 1400kg travelling at 60km/h on a road needs to stop suddenly to avoid hitting a child. (see attached working) It is clear that in all circumstances ABS is beneficial by allowing the car to stop in a shorter distance when compared to no ABS. ABS decreases stopping distance minimising the impact of collisions and preventing most accidents. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Forces and Motion section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Forces and Motion essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Physics Investigation: The effect of speed on braking distance

    4 star(s)

    Position the chosen ball(s) at a certain distance along the ramp (at the appropriate distance-interval) 10. Release the ball, letting it travel down the ramp and onto the carpet. 11. Ensure the light-gate is recording the speed of the ball.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Physics research study - vehicle safety and braking distances

    3 star(s)

    Thinking distance can be decreased by using road signs to warn the driver that they might have to stop soon. The more alert a driver is, the faster their reaction time, the quicker they can apply the brakes and the smaller is the thinking distance.

  1. Approximate Stopping Distances

    Thinking distance is also affected by the age and health of the driver. The age of the driver effects the thinking distance because if the driver is over 70 years old it would take them longer to react than someone aged between 30 to 40 years because as a person

  2. An Investigation Into The Effect Of Speed Of A Vehicle On Its Stopping Distance.

    I shall change the gradient of the wooden plank, which is to act as a slope, by changing the height of its rear end. I shall begin by setting its height at 10 cm while its front sits on the floor.

  1. Pulley Systems.

    from it. * Using a spring balance I had measured the effort which was needed to lift the load vertically through 10 centimetres. * After the above, I had set up a two pulley system and hung a 1N load from it.

  2. Investigation into Friction.

    Smooth and rough hardboard will be used. The two independent variables will not be changed at the same time, so that the test remains fair. The first part of the experiment will be done using the smooth hardboard; the masses on the wooden block will be varied; then the experiment will be repeated exactly, but using the rough hardboard instead.

  1. Designing a children's slide, making it exciting for the children whilst exercising safety.

    , the frictional force will have increased too until a maximum frictional force is reached and it is here when friction is said to be ' limiting'. Thus the object will begin to move. Once the object begins to move, the frictional force opposing the relative motion remains a constant value (?N, where ?

  2. Prove that "Frictional Forces are Surface dependant".

    R = m � g = 1,000 � 10 = 10,000?N Fmax?=???�?R Fmax?=?0.60?�?10,000?N = 6,000?N A force of 6,000?newtons (N) is needed to push the car. Therefore, with reference to the information stated above, I have planned the following procedure and equipment: Apparatus: * 1 Block of wood with measurements 4.5cm X 4.5cm X 4.5cm (volume= 4.5cm3).

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work