• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Comparing the Organ Systems of Worms, Grasshoppers. Frogs, and Humans

Extracts from this document...


Comparing the Organ Systems of Worms, Grasshoppers. Frogs, and Humans Shannon Wong A glance at the external appearance of a human being, a frog, a grasshopper and a worm usually won't stir up any immediate curiosity within the average person. For those who are interested, most would find it hard to believe that these living organisms can be compared to one another. However, if one were to explore the organ systems of these unique, individual multi-cellular organisms, one would find examples of interesting similarities as well as differences between these four organisms. Frogs and humans have the same respiratory system, as they both use two lungs as a method of bringing air into their body. They both breathe through their nostrils (frogs also have internal nares in addition to the external ones) and mouths, which lead to their trachea. The trachea is designed to moisten air, and keep it clean. Branching out from the trachea are bronchi (small air passages in the lungs), which in turn branch out into thin branches called bronchioles. Fine, feathery membranes, called alveoli, are attached to the ends of the bronchioles. ...read more.


Then, the carbon dioxide diffuses through the skin, into the environment, as the worm's deoxygenated blood travels through vessels under the skin's surface. Therefore, gas is exchanged from the worm's blood through the worm's skin- something that frogs and humans cannot do. Worms also carry oxygen around with a pigment. Grasshoppers, on the other hand, have an open circulatory system, meaning that blood flows into open spaces (sinuses), rather than through blood vessels. The blood only carries food and waste, and is not used in gas exchange at all. The grasshopper's tubular heart pumps blood through the aorta to the head. In this system, the blood moves much more slowly than in closed circulatory systems. Frogs are amphibians, which have one 3-chambered heart which pumps twice (incomplete). Deoxygenated blood is pumped from the heart to the lungs, where carbon dioxide is released into the lungs, and oxygen is taken (this gas exchange takes place on the site of the alveoli). Then, the oxygenated is pumped back into the heart, as it mixes with deoxygenated blood. This blood is then pumped throughout the body, as it delivers oxygen to body cells. ...read more.


However, frogs have a bony plate in their mouth, called maxillary teeth, as well as two studs, called vomerine teeth to trap their food (insects). The frog's food moves down the esophagus via a series of slow contractions where it also gets lubricated. Then, the food enters the stomach, where stomach acid, bile (produced by the liver and stored by the gall bladder), pancreatic juice (produced by the pancreas), and enzymes break the food down. Then, the food moves into the small intestine, where nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream. The semi-solid waste is then moved into the large intestine, where excess water is absorbed back into the frog's body. Waste exits through the cloaca. The human digestive system basically works in the same way, except for a few differences. Unlike the frog mouth, the human mouth gnashes food into small particles, because we have more teeth to thoroughly chew with and mechanically break down the food. Humans also have an esophagus, stomach, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, small intestine, and large intestine, which serve the same purpose as with the frogs. However, frogs have longer stomachs than humans, and a shorter large intestine and esophagus than humans. They also have a cloaca, while humans have rectums and anuses to excrete waste. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Biology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Biology essays

  1. Extended Essay- How is production of carbon dioxide (CO2) during digestion affected by the ...

    Print. 3. Murray, Andy. "Sweeten to Taste." Beverage Spectrum Magazine - BevNet 1 October 2007: Print. 4. Anthony Carpi, Ph.D. "Carbohydrates," Visionlearning Vol. 2 Issue. 5, 2003.? 5. Bounds, Laura E.; Agnor, Dottiedee; Darnell, Gayden S.; and Shea, Kirstin Brekken (2003). Health and Fitness: A Guide to a Healthy Lifestyle, 2nd edition.

  2. Should Animals have the same rights as Humans? Both animals and humans exhibit behaviours ...

    When their young peck the marked area the parent regurgitates food. Herring gull young are born with an instinctive knowledge of this process-their continued existence relies on this knowledge as they have not learned anything yet. Their 'begging' behaviour is a fixed behaviour which occurs in response to a simple stimulus-the sight of the red dot.

  1. Bilharzia. Schistosomiasis, commonly known as snail fever, bilharzia and bilharziasis, is a disease ...

    larvae burrow into the skin in only a few seconds and migrate in the body system from the skin capillaries to the lungs, heart and then finally the liver in 7 days or so. By the time the parasites reach the liver, they mature and form into pairs of adult

  2. How the Heart Works

    The first sound "lub" is not the contraction of the heart, as many believe it is, but purely vibrations caused by the closure of the atrioventricular valves (The tricuspid valve and the mitral valve). The "dub" sound is created on the same principle only that this time it is the pulmonary and aortic valve that close causing the sound vibrations.

  1. GM Foods

    For this method, scientists take a specie of plant that is on the verge of extinction, extract its genes, and create another specie of plant similar to the original plant in order to preserve the plants characteristics and functions. This method is very useful as we can make essential plants last for eternity.

  2. LAB-What infuences blood pressure

    Predictions - The obesity increases blood pressure, - The smoking increases blood pressure, - Body Mass Index shows correct tendencies, * INDEPENDENT VARIABLES * Blood pressure, * Weight, * Waist size, * CONSTANTS * Height, * CONTROLLED VARIABLES, * Number of blood measurements, The equipment required to carry out experiment:

  1. Activated sludge wastewater treatment system and method

    A waste processing system as defined in claim 16, additionally comprising: a valve to control the flow of said wastewater containing said contaminants bound to said microorganisms from said first container to said solid/liquid separator. 18. A waste processing system as defined in claim 1, wherein said solid/liquid separator comprises: a dissolved air flotation system.

  2. Investigating the Properties of Blood Vessels

    If we continued to add more weight to each blood vessel, both of their final lengths would be even longer, but the length of the pulmonary artery would be more affected. Eventually, both of the vessels will snap and not handle the weight.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work