• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Humanistic and Behaviouristic Approach to Human Behaviour

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Humanistic and Behaviouristic Approach to Human Behaviour The humanistic and behaviouristic approaches have different perspectives on the study of human behaviour. This essay will describe and contrast behaviourist and humanistic approaches to the study of human behaviour. It will give a clear description of both theories and describe the main ways in which they differ in their approach to psychology. Behaviourists say people are not inherently good or evil; their behaviour is the result of a continuous interaction between personal and environmental variables. Environmental conditions shape behaviour through learning, in turn; a person's behaviour shapes the environment. Persons and situations influence each other. The behaviouristic approach to psychology was first established by J.B. Watson in 1913, in which he argued that to be truly scientific, psychology should only concern itself with behaviour that could be directly observed, not the mind, (Gross 2005). He thought Wundt's work, based on introspection, that is to introspect about sensations and feelings and to report these accurately as they could, was not scientific enough (Eysenck 2004). Watson thought that eventually all behaviour could be understood through a complex chain of learned stimulus response connections. A major approach in the first half of the 20th century, it ignored cognitive and holistic explanations of human behaviour as ...read more.

Middle

(Sternberg 1995) The behavioural theory has led us to see human actions as reactions to specific environments, and has helped focus on how environments control our behaviour and how they can be changed to modify behaviour. As in the case of pavlov's study above, it shows how we seem to be shaped primarily by forces beyond our control. However, humanistic theorists do not believe that it is sufficient to define mental health as simply an adaptation to the environment. The humanistic approach was founded as an alternative to psychoanalytic and behaviouristic approaches. (E.Smith, et al 2003). It largely rejects the scientific method as humanists see each person as unique so what is the point in trying to find 'laws' about human behaviour when they are not going to apply to most people. Humanists consider what is important is each individual's subjective experience; this data would not be directly observable to anyone else. In other words humanists emphasise the need to see the world through each person's perspective. Experimentation is seen as dehumanising. The idea of determinism is rejected, people have free will and are able to make their own choices, so we would all react differently in an experiment, there wouldn't be the opportunity to be able to make 'laws' about how everyone would respond to the same stimulus/situation. ...read more.

Conclusion

(http://atschool.eduweb.co.uk/barrycomp/bhs/gcse_resources_pdf/the%20nature%20nurture%20Debate.PDF) In contrast, the humanistic approach is not scientific as it adopts the view that individual's behaviour cannot be measured, as each individual's personal behaviour must be considered. This approach sees human beings as free, capable of choosing what they do. On the basis of Rogers work on self-concept, he became convinced that human beings are free and able to choose. Humanistic psychologists believe human beings are continuously striving for growth, and to make their own choices, which influence the path of their lives. Through these freely made choices, each person grows into a unique individual. Overall the behaviouristic approach could be said to have an advantage due to the fact that it is scientific and behaviour can be observably measured and replicated, whereas the humanistic approach does not allow scope to measure data putting it at a disadvantage. Directly Consulted Sources: Gross, R. (2005). Psychology The Science Of Mind And Behaviour. 5th Edition. (Pp.17). Kent: GreenGate Publishing Service. W.Eyseneck, M. (2004). Psychology An International Perspective. (Pp.811-812, P.84, 814). USA: Psychology Press Ltd. E.Smith, E, Hoeksenna, S.N, Fredrickson, B, R.Loftus, G. (2003). Introduction To Psychology. 14th Edition. (Pp.7, 11, 469-470, 476-480). USA: Vicki Knight J.Sternberg, R. (1995). In Search Of The Human Mind. 2nd Edition. (P.52). USA: Harcourt Brace. The Nature - Nurture Debate: http://atschool.eduweb.co.uk/barrycomp/bhs/gcse_resources_pdf/the%20nature%20nurture%20Debate.PDF (Pp.2) Roth, I. (1990). Introduction To Pschology. Volume 1. (Pp. 477). Milton Keynes: Open University. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Psychometrics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Psychometrics essays

  1. Compare and contrast qualitative and quantitative approaches to research

    Such studies are conducted retrospectively, not prospectively. Case-control studies have the disadvantage, compared to the randomised study, that the groups may not be equivalent on other factors. Case-control studies are a less-expensive and often-used type of epidemiological study that can be carried out by small teams or individual researchers in single facilities.

  2. The Neural Workings Behind Altruistic Behavior: Is it Human Nature or a Function of ...

    greater readiness to endure a personal cost for the benefit of another. Robert Trivers introduced the model of reciprocal altruism in 1971 when he stated that natural selection favors altruism because of its long-term benefit to the altruist. When one helps another, so long as the cost of helping is

  1. Evaluate the contribution made by psychoanalysis to the scientific understanding of human behaviour.

    Freud (1896) had published papers with a "seduction theory" of hysteria stating that childhood s****l abuse was necessary past fact for that illness. After that point a physician called it a scientific fairy tale because there was no scientific methods involved so Freud began having doubts about his methods of

  2. Both biological and humanistic factors have influences on ones personality development. One major ...

    In other words, each person can make decisions at any time in their lives. Four key fundamentals of the humanistic approach are: 1) personal responsibility - in the end, a person's behaviors are the result of personal choices; 2) here and now - learning to live life as it happens; 3)

  1. Cerebral asymmetry- To what extent is brain function lateralized

    Standard MRI shows the major tissue structures of the brain. An alternative called "functional" MRI allows researchers to identify which areas are being used during different tasks, including producing and understanding language.18 The fMRI study of silent reading by Bavelier and colleagues (1997)

  2. Does the paranormal exist because we believe or do we believe because it exists?

    The Ganzfeld studies are one of a few experimental techniques that have garnered positive reviews from sceptics, and therefore I will use the criticisms assigned to the experimental design as a review of all experiments into the paranormal. One of the earliest and best known possibilities of influencing the experiment is what was identified by Gertrude Schmeilder (1958)

  1. Exploring the different pool of resources

    by the presentation of a letter, after a half a second interval a second letter was produced and the participant was asked to indicate if the letter was the same by means of pressing a button with their right hand.

  2. Theories of Personality. Hans Eysenck: The Factor Theory

    Systematic desensitization involves a gradual, client-controlled exposure to the anxiety-eliciting object or situation. Systematic desensitization involves counter conditioning by having the client make a response antagonistic to anxiety in the presence of the anxiety-evoking stimuli, so that anxiety is suppressed Psychoticism and intelligence level have also been linked to antisocial and criminal behavior.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work