Six inventions of the Industrial Revolution.
Edward Phillips 29.09.2002. Six inventions of the Industrial Revolution The first industry to mechanise in Britain was the cotton industry. The breakthrough was an innovation for weaving. Weaving Machines Until the early 1800's, almost all weaving was done on hand looms because nobody could solve the problems of mechanical weaving. In 1733, John Kay, a Lancashire clock-maker, invented the 'Flying Shuttle'. Using this, weavers could work much faster, so they needed more spun thread; it took 8 spinners to supply one weaver. This machine made all the movements for weaving but it often went out of control, and a number of attempts were made to invent a better spinning machine to increase the amount of thread available. In 1764 James Hargreaves invented the Spinning Jenny (see below). In the mid 1780's, an Anglican clergyman named Edmund Cartwright, developed a steam-powered loom. In 1803, John Horrocks, a Lancashire machine manufacturer, built an all-metal loom. Other British machine makers made further improvements to the steam-powered loom during the early 1800's. By 1835, Great Britain had more than 120,000 power looms. Most of them were used to weave cotton. After the mid-1800's, hand looms were used only to make fancy patterned cloth, which still could not be made on power looms. Spinning Machines For hundreds of years before the Industrial Revolution,
Compare and contrast the aims and achievements of Mazzini and Garibaldi
Compare and contrast the aims and achievements of Mazzini and Garibaldi The unification of Italy came about almost by accident. However, the process was reliant upon the actions of several key figures. Mazzini and Garibaldi were two of these key figures. Although the two men played essentially very different roles in the unification of Italy, they had much in common. During the course of this essay, the similarities and differences in the aims and achievements of Mazzini and Garibaldi will be examined. Mazzini was the first man to give a coherent and politically sound basis for Italian unification. After spending time as a member of the Carbonari, a secret society with little consistency in its aims and objectives, Mazzini founded 'Young Italy' (Giovanni Italia). The essential goal of Young Italy was to achieve Italian unification through violent means. However, Mazzini was also a republican and believed that a united Italy must be "a free and equal community of brothers"; essentially it appears that Mazzini envisaged a socialist democratic republic. Mazzini's aims were inexorably linked in his own mind; he believed that Italy should not be unified under a constitutional Monarchy and that a constitutional Monarchy must only be a transitional phase. He believed that, through a process of revolution and education, Italy could be turned into a democratic socialist republic:
Sisyphus and the Anger of Zeus - Portugal: The Endless Rise and Fall of a Prosperous Country
Sisyphus and the Anger of Zeus Portugal: The Endless Rise and Fall of a Prosperous Country Sophie Wulk ID no.: 262129 Pigeon Hole10 20.11.2003 Country File 1 Final Draft P. Calje "In Tartarum deportato ei luppiter laborem imposuit talem, ut umnibus vivibus summaque contentione saxum in cacumen collis volveret, quos cum as summum verticem produxisset, rursus deorsum post se revolveretur"1 (Gymnasium Kreienbüh)l Just like the endless task of Sisyphus, the history of state and nation building of Portugal is marked by steady highs and lows, especially in the pre modern period extreme successes take turns with total losses. The astonishing progressive country, that amazingly early establishes an independent monarchy and a flourishing economy, constantly has to struggle with external threats and pressures. After the reconquista or the liberation of Muslim domination, and independency from Spain it becomes the richest power in the world, nevertheless this potential decreases and Portuguese people experience the absolute breakdown. Although it is one of the oldest and geographically most stable nations of Europe, the instability of inner affairs and the constant external threat makes Portugal comparable to Sisyphus who, in the Greek myth, was punished by Zeus and had to roll a block of stone up a steep hill. Since the rock fell back every time when almost at
This autobiography is a public primary source published in 1781. It was written in 1766 by Rousseau during the pre-revolutionary period of the French society, a period close to the Seven Years' War, to present his chronicles
What kind of a primary source is this, and what strengths and limitations does it have as a source for studying the state of pre-revolutionary French society? This autobiography is a public primary source published in 1781. It was written in 1766 by Rousseau during the pre-revolutionary period of the French society, a period close to the Seven Years' War, to present his chronicles in a positive light for future readers as a means of defending his good name after he is gone. The strengths are as follows: Since the author is writing about himself, the information provided should be reliable and authentic as he witnessed the actual events. Being a well-known philosopher also helped to establish the credibility of this source. As a public source, it was under the pressure to be accurate. However, there is also a possibility of it harnessing an intention to mislead the readers to believe that the absolute system is bad as the source seemed to be written in a lop-sided opinion, where one is to be made believe that the Government was responsible for all the disasters that happened in France during that time. Since this document is an informal source, the author may have been motivated by his own political, emotional or personal agenda and may have written it from his own point of view instead of the actual events. Being only an extract, we do not know for sure how representative
Discuss how colonialactivity has led to the emergence of different varieties of English in the lastfew centuries.
Discuss how colonial activity has led to the emergence of different varieties of English in the last few centuries. Introduction English is an international language. It is spoken in many parts of the world, yet with various degrees of differences in grammar, pronunciation or vocabulary. How do these varieties arise? When we take a close look at the history in the last few centuries, it is certain that the varieties of English have a close relationship with the colonial activity in this period. Until the late sixteenth century English was not spoken anywhere outside the British Isles. The spread of English beyond the British Isles resulted from the spread of the English-speaking people through colonial activity. As English-speaking colonies were established, English came into contact with indigenous languages of the pre-colonial population. Very often speakers in these communities tend to incorporate many linguistic features from their first language when speaking the new one. Besides, there was diversity in the language used by the English-speaking settlers themselves. Dialect levelling often occurred. As a result, pidgins and creoles developed and new varieties of English emerged. Different patterns of colonial activity and their effects on English According to David Graddol et al. (1996), there were three types of English colony, each of them having different
Does dieting work?
Would you agree that Louis stabilised France in the period 1815-1824? Louis XVIII did not stabilise France in the period 1815-1824, mainly because he was unpopular after the Restoration of 1815, even though he did introduce laws such as press censorship and the Gouvion St. Cyr. Louis was unpopular because he had been identified with the enemies of France. In 1815 some changes were made as apart of the second Peace of Paris, which were France been restricted to her pre-revolutionary borders, was forced to demolish key frontier fortresses, had to return the booty that Napoleon's army had gathered through their conquests and had to pay off a war indemnity. This second peace of Paris was a humiliation and unpopular, but Louis XVIII still agreed to it, which made him disrespected; therefore the allies were right in saying that it would be difficult for him to re-establish himself. Louis XVIII did not stabilise France to a great extent and this is demonstrated by the fact that the restored Bourbon Monarchy only lasted for 15 years before it was overthrown by Revolution. The Ultras and the White Terror were key matters at the beginning of the period that showed Louis XVIII difficulty in stabilising France. The Ultras were a large majority of young, inexperienced and extreme royalists that were consisted within the Chamber of Deputies. The number of Ultras increased in the
Why was there a financial crisis in France in 1788/9
Jannine Layhe "Why was there a financial crisis in France in 1788/9?" In the run up to the French revolution in 1789 France faced much financial problems. This was not helped in the years before by Louis 15th and his love for wars, like the Austrian succession and seven years war and his lavish lifestyle including the building of the palace in Versailles and his many mistresses. This set France up for many future problems, such involved the Ancien Regime, the tax and estate system, there being no central bank, poor investment into transport and agriculture and the reforms not passed for tax. One of the main problems in France at that time was the Ancien Regime which involved the three estates, of which the upper estates, 1st and 2nd, of whom were nobility and clergy, were exempt from taxes as a privilege although they were the wealthiest. Instead the direct taxes were paid by the 3rd estate through a system called tax-farming, which was a very corrupt system and meant that of the taxes being paid little reached back to the monarch and went into the tax-farmers pocket. This was so much of a problem because the country was not getting enough money in order to maintain the monarchs lavish spending and the rest of country, not to forget putting money back into the country through investment. As his father, Louis 16th had a very expensive lifestyle and taste, as did his young
Absolutism - How did Louis XIV establish himself an absolutist state in Francein the 17th century?
Absolutism How did Louis XIV establish himself an absolutist state in France in the 17th century? The dictionary definition of the word absolutism is 'A political theory holding that all power should be vested in one ruler or other authority'. Louis XIV believed strongly in this and believed himself to be an absolute ruler. He used various ways to make his mark, beginning with the idea of absolutism as this was an attractive option when his personal rule began in 1661. He inherited this concept from his father and believed that he would be a superior ruler by following on this tradition. During the seventeenth-century, Louis constructed a great palace at Versailles, some twelve miles outside the city of Paris. It can be argued that Louis XIV had this palace designed so as to make visible the abstract political concept of absolutism, the idea that the king exercised absolute or unlimited authority over his lands and people. Louis' reign can be characterized by the statement known to him, "L'état, c'est moi" which translates, 'I am the state.' Louis sustained the nobility exception from taxes but forced its members into financial dependence on the crown. The provincial nobles also lost political power. He cut local authorities and formed specialised ministries, which only his professional ministers were a part of. When the first minister who was overseeing Louis VIX's
The Plague Symbol in "La Peste"
The Plague Symbol in "La Peste" a) In assessing the plague's effectiveness as a symbol of the human predicament in general it must first be stated what exactly is meant by the human predicament. It can obviously be taken at many levels to mean many different things, such is the ambiguity of the phrase. In the context of La Peste however we must take it to mean the absurdity of existence. The fact that man has no control over his fate and the only thing he can be sure about is death. It is about the vulnerability of man, powerless against the forces of the universe, in which he is a stranger. There are many ways in which we can compare the plague to the human predicament. In Le Mythe de Sisyphe Camus wrote about the eternal struggle of man. Sisyphe had to push a huge boulder up a hill and every time he got to the top the boulder would merely roll down and Sisyphe would be forced to start again. The problem he faced is like the problem man faces in life, one continual uphill struggle. The comparison in La Peste is Rieux. The plague is the boulder and Rieux is pushing it, constantly battling against the plague and yet seemingly getting nowhere. In La Peste, as in many of his other works, Camus shows a strong preoccupation with death. Indeed his works have been described as "le monde du condamnes a mort". Death is prevalent throughout La Peste and can strike at anytime and
To what extent do the sources agree that there was no alternative for the Bolsheviks but to use brutal terror tactics and that this was the most important reason why they won the Civil War?
To what extent do the sources agree that there was no alternative for the Bolsheviks but to use brutal terror tactics and that this was the most important reason why they won the Civil War? The sources, when generalised in a group, seem to suggest that the Bolsheviks had to use force against the Whites and it is almost as if they had no other choice in the matter, as this was all they could do to ensure they won the Civil War. The Bolsheviks had to be ruthless and as efficient as possible at a time when the country was in great turmoil in order to establish their power and ensure that they would not be thrown out of power. Perhaps the only way that this was possible was with the use of brutal tactics, which would lead to many deaths, but would fulfil the aim of maintaining control over Russia. Lewin, the author of 'Lenin's Last Struggle' believes that only authoritarian procedures would give Russia the solutions it needed to the problems that it was currently experiencing. Whilst he thinks that Lenin didn't seek to rule in such a brutal manner, it appears that it was the only choice he had due to the state of the country. Pipes, the author of source B, also talks of the society in which 'extreme poverty and insecurity were the rule', making it sound like the country needed discipline and somebody to really take control of things so that at least some of the current