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University Degree: 1920-1949

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  1. The Manchurian Affair 1931-1933.

    and to gain easy access to cheap raw materials. Japan already controlled Korea, the area of Kwantung (around Port Arthur) and the South Manchurian railway (although this area was on Chinese territory). These places had few raw materials and Japan needed an Empire which had useful land with lots of raw materials and living space. In 1931 an incident in the Chinese province of Manchuria gave the Japanese the opportunity they had been looking for. The Japanese army controlled the South Manchurian railway (it carried Japanese goods into Manchuria and the rest of China and brought food and raw materials back to Japan eg.

    • Word count: 1726
  2. Why Did the German Attack On the Soviet Union in 1914 fail in its objectives?

    In his book 'The Road to Stalingrad', John Erickson states that it was indeed German policy that dictated the reaction of the other powers and not allied military policy. Even though the German army was being heavily surveyed at this point it was still unclear as to their exact capabilities, however, it was becoming clear that soon the Germans would once again possess real military power; Tukhachevskii ......... pointed to P�tain's argument, that no longer could the French Army rely on time to mobilize before the enemy engaged powerful forces.1 According to Tukhachevskii, the French would prove no worthy opposition to the Germans.

    • Word count: 1619
  3. Account for the failure of Japan's attempt to challenge the West from 1931-45.

    Calling their ideology "pan-Asianism"1 they assumed superiority over the other nations adjacent to it and tried to impose its policies on these nations economically. When the majority of countries did not voluntarily comply, Japanese frustration, particularly from the army, meant that they were simply taken over by force instead. Nationalism had come from the development of anti-western feelings and a sense that all the modernisation that was happening was a mistake. There were criticisms of western influences which the Japanese claimed was causing "moral decline"2 and many wished to return to the traditional values of the Meji period.

    • Word count: 2061
  4. The causes of the First World War.

    This made Germany accept total, complete blame for the war, something that most Germans simply could not accept. Germany lost the 'Polish Corridor' to Poland, the Alsace-Lorraine lands to France and saw the Rhineland occupied for fifteen years. She also saw her army depleted to one hundred thousand professional soldiers and her naval fleet lost several ships. There were many faults with the settlement. Most are in agreement today that it was too hard on the Germans and that some of the terms such as reparations payments and German disarmament were much too harsh on an already humiliated nation.

    • Word count: 1512
  5. Great Apes on the brink of extinction.

    "$25 million is the bare minimum we need," stressed Klaus Toepfer, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Executive Director. "The clock is standing at one minute to midnight for the great apes. They share more than 96 percent of their DNA with humans; if we lose any of the great ape species, we would be destroying a bridge to our own origins and with it a part of our humanity." The UN first became concerned about the diminishing number of apes in 2001 and founded GRASP to raise awareness and attempt to impede the growing problem.

    • Word count: 519
  6. In January 1953 the administration of Dwight D. Eisenhower assumed office on the back of an election victory allowing the Republican Party a chance at governance denied them for over twenty years.

    defence strategy, code-named Project Solarium. Faced with a military budget which had "quadrupled"2under his predecessor. Eisenhower was keen to reconcile "what contemporary journalists called his 'Great Equation': balancing requisite military strength with healthy economic growth"3. The importance of a balanced budget was paramount in Eisenhower's eyes and an important factor previously overlooked (in this respect Eisenhower was arguably ahead of his time). The need for economic health was inextricably linked to his developing ideas on the communist threat. He realised the Cold War would be a battle of stamina, won not by armies on the battlefield but by a gradual, drawn out wearing down of the opposition.

    • Word count: 4037
  7. Mein Kampf - a philosophical introduction to what became the n**i fascist Third Reich under Hitler.

    This word "Aryan" was a linguistic term, originally referring to the indo-European group of languages. Since before the end of the 19th century it had already been distorted as a concept by a number of writers, among them Houston Stewart Chamberlain, who gave it racial connotations, and used it to denote superiority over the "Semitic" races. Yet the term "Semitic" itself was originally not a racial but a linguistic term, relating not to Jews and Non-Jews, but to a language group which includes Hebrew and Arabic.

    • Word count: 3670
  8. The Closer one Examines the Dictatorships of Hitler and Stalin, the closer their Similarities Outweigh their Differences. Discuss.

    In a century of bloodshed, Hitler and Stalin steered out in dreadful similarity as beacons of evil. Beyond the events that shaped them, did it take a special kind of personality to do what they did; were the twentieth century's greatest enemies in some fundamental way the same? Hitler and Stalin were outsiders, they came from far reaches of the Great Empires into which they were born, and both were later distained as provincial, vulgar upstarts, who spoke with strong regional accents all their lives.

    • Word count: 3288
  9. For the past four months, 5,000 lightly armed Chechen warriors fighting on flat, open land and have held off 160,000 Russian troops with heavy guns, helicopters, thousands of tanks and armored vehicles.

    In August of 1996 a cease-fire was signed. Yet, the province became independent in fact, if not legally. By conquering Chechnya, Russian wants to crush once and for all a secessionist dreams that any other regions may have. Another reason Russia is fighting is because they see it as a quick victory that will ensure that Prime Minister Vladimir Putin becomes Russia's next President. These are not reasons to viciously murder innocent people. If Russians were to vote for the next president right now, Vladimir Putin would win by a landslide.2 Chechens are fighting for their independence out of honor

    • Word count: 1485
  10. 'An Economic Giant but a Political Dwarf': Is this a fair assessment of Germany in the Period 1949-1990?

    The American economy was fortunate not to be reliant upon Europe and therefore their economy emerged much stronger and they helped to invest and reconstruct Europe and especially Germany. The German economy was in a particularly woeful state, as it had suffered extreme losses in life, capital, land and stock. The repercussions of the war meant that Germany's national debt was huge and unemployment was soaring. Unemployment directly after the war rose to around 6 million, about 12% of the country were currently out of work.

    • Word count: 1774
  11. Adolf Hitler and WWII.

    For example; the six killing factories were located in #1. Treblinka, #2. Chelmno, #3. Majdanen, #4. Sobibor, #5. Belzec, and #6. Auschwitz Birkenau. The questions of where (places, eastern fronts, western fronts, buildings), what (ex. the killing factories, camps, bases, aims, targets), how (ex. set ups of events, strategies, power,) who (ex. Military, S.S., Nazis, Jews, Hitler), why (ex. reasons for events; power, hatred, religion, nationality), and when (dates; camps, deaths, invasions, attacks, elections) will be detailed throughout each historical event.

    • Word count: 2805
  12. Why and When did Fascism Loose Support Among the People and Discontent Become Visible?

    This action failed to impress the Italian people and was heavily condemned by the Catholic Church. It was a clear display of true fascist principles, principles that were already apparent to the rest of the world: "Fascism was characterised as a regime of an uncivilised country which key features were best expressed by violence and illegality." (Mack Smith - Faye) More critically it demonstrated the impotence of the League of Nations, setting a precedent for future behaviour. Almost immediately after the Spanish Civil war commenced in October 1936.

    • Word count: 1642
  13. How was it possible for the Final Solution to be conceived and so nearly to succeed?

    They saw the likes of gypsies, the h********l and the handicapped as a serious biological threat to the purity of the perfect German, 'Aryan' race, but most of their efforts were concentrated on the popular anti-Semitist ideologies of the time, and for the European Jews, the tyrannical destruction of their communities, livelihoods and religions was about to begin. Over the next few months and years, the Jewish communities, which had been established in Germany for over 1,600 years (Gilbert 1978:2), were to be brutally shunned from public existence, their homes repopulated by German citizens, their shops covered in graffiti and broken into, and their families split and destroyed.

    • Word count: 4152
  14. Account for the weaknesses of the First and Second Coalitions against France.

    This was particularly so for Catherine II of Russia who did not yet have the strategic threat from French expansion but who did have the Ottoman Empire to contend with on her borders. It was not only these powers who pursued their own interests. Britain, a chiefly maritime power put more effort into attacking French colonies abroad for their own territorial and commercial gain, than with fighting the revolutionaries on the continent, where Britain's offering of troops comprised mostly of German mercenaries.

    • Word count: 1852
  15. Assess the impact of external factors on Japanese expansion between 1937 and 1941.

    America only issued verbal warnings like the "quarantine aggressor" speech of October 5, 1937 where Roosevelt called for 'positive endeavours to perverse peace'. Public outcry for isolationism in the United States forced the President to retreat even from economic sanctions. Inaction at this stage proved a decisive factor as it allowed Japan to consolidate its position in China, and allowed the military to secure its hold over Japanese policy. Britain attempted to defend its financial interests in China by encouraging Chinese currency reforms and by insisting on dominating the Chinese Maritime Customs Service1.

    • Word count: 2641
  16. Why did fascist parties emerge in so many European countries in the inter-war years?

    The fascist movements had much in common in their ideology, so much that they were indeed able to borrow from each other. Behind the stereotypical fascism defined by brutality and violence there lay a coherent body of thought, which had developed from intellectual movements from the late 19th century onwards. It resulted in a fascist ideology that was elusive, drawing from the right and from the left, which was neither capitalist nor communist, yet sought to create a radical 'Third way.'

    • Word count: 2481
  17. "The only true patriot in the story of Risorgimento" "Garibaldi very nearly wrecked everything Cavour had achieved before 1860"

    He later returned to the aid of Victor Emanuel and Cavour whom both welcomed him as a useful ally. Garibaldi's hometown of Nice had been handed to France in negotiations beyond Cavour's control upon realising he gathered an army of 1000 men and marched towards Nice. Garibaldi however never reached Nice as he was diverted by a cry for help from Sicily, this could been the end of everything Cavour had achieved up to now! This cry of revolt form the south was irresistible to Garibaldi to play a hero. He gave up his quest to release his home town from foreign control for a much easier battle.

    • Word count: 1230
  18. Middle East: A New Decade Brings on Changes of Interest.

    It requires a ceasefire from Palestinian militants but does not call for ending of hostilities by Israel. Of course, the ceasefire is to be followed by an Israeli withdrawal, already in its final stages. But it does not put an end to the assassinations by Israeli forces that frequently include killing civilian men, women, and children and more recently leaders of the insurgency groups. If Israel continues to wage war against Hamas and company, the ceasefire will never last and the fighting and disagreements will continue. The expectations that the Palestinian Authority(PA) will do the job of reining in Hamas, something that the Israeli Defense Force(IDF)

    • Word count: 1621
  19. It must be admitted that the Republican Government of Spain has waged war very ineffectually (Liston Oak, May 1937). Comment.

    Prime Minister Casares Quiroga prevaricated, confident proclamations issued forth as important time slipped by, but no arms were issued.2 Quiroga undoubtedly overwhelmed resigned on the 19th of July and was quickly followed twelve hours later by his replacement Martinez Barrio. It was the next new Prime Minister Jose? Giral that issued a decree dissolving the army and ordering that arms be distributed.3 As arms had to be issued anyway the delay proved a costly mistake for two reasons. Firstly it could be argued that in areas where the military hesitated and the workers were prepared the uprising generally failed, were as conversely when the military acted quickly and the workers remained inactive the rising was a success4.

    • Word count: 2087
  20. Neville Chamberlain was born in 1869 and was the son of the politician Joseph Chamberlain.

    When Chamberlain's half brother Austin, the then Foreign Minister, remarked in 1925 that "no British Government would risk the bones of a single British Grenadier in defence of the Polish Corridor" it seemed to Germany that Britain had turned it's back on Eastern Europe. So it is clear that even before Chamberlain became Prime Minister that Britain had followed a foreign policy of appeasement. In the earlier stages of appeasement there seemed much to commend it, and the appeasers, who included Macdonald, Baldwin, Sir John Simon (Foreign Secretary 1931-1935)

    • Word count: 2506
  21. 'The Versailles Peace Settlement Failed to Secure British Foreign Policy Interests' - How far do you agree with this view?

    Germany were not allowed soldiers or military equipment within 30 miles of the East bank of the Rhine. Finally, Article 231 of the Treaty was the 'War Guilt Clause' which meant Germany had to accept total blame for the war. The Allies gave Germany a new form of Government based on proportional representation, intending to prevent a German dictatorship. British foreign policy interests were far different to those of France and the United States concerning the Treaty of Versailles. In Britain most people wanted Germany to be punished, "Make Germany Pay" and "Squeeze them until the pips squeak" were popular slogans.

    • Word count: 2051
  22. Consider the view that the United States remained a satellite of Great Britain until the War of 1812.

    This was the result both of the Britain's dominance of both credit in the United States and of maritime trade. The trans-Atlantic relationship remained very important for the United States. British policy makers however didn't spare a thought for achieving good relations with the United States, especially after 1793 and the onset of war with France. Britain didn't see the United States as a formidable threat at this time; the American army was small and their navy even smaller. It was felt that the independence and prosperity the Americans had won from the revolution were not held securely enough for the United States to 1, Reginald Horsman The War of 1812 (Eyre and Spottiswoode 1969)

    • Word count: 2373
  23. Jewish Immigration into Britain in the 19th & 20th Centuries.

    "Under every kind of outrage they died, mostly at the door of their homes. They were babes, butchered at the b*****s of their mothers. They were old men beaten down in the presence of their sons. They were delicate women violated and murdered in the sight of their own children". Reverend W. C. Stiles, preaching in Russia during a pogrom in 1903. The 'Doctor's Plot' Stalin accused nine doctors, six of them Jews, of plotting to poison and kill the Soviet leadership.

    • Word count: 1670
  24. Night and Fog or the Shindler's List

    The movie is about one man, Oskar Schindler, who risked everything to save a group of Jews, even recovered them from certain death. This award-winning movie by Steven Spielberg succeeded to provide insight to the nature of n**i brutality and also shows the labor system, which is set up by the Nazis, along with the death camps. This work is certainly one of the excellence of Hollywood. Until the apparition of the Schindler's List spectators have only seen movies about the Holocaust, which all are about the death camps or gas chambers.

    • Word count: 1609
  25. The historian P.M.H. Bell contends that the Thirty Year War thesis, the will of Hitler, the underlying economic, ideological and strategically forces was the origin of the Second World War.

    The treaty of Versailles took territory and inhabitants away from the German state and changed the borders that built a deep feeling of resentment in the German people. The Germans had restrictions in the size of their army and were unable to make any economic recovery due to the enormous reparations they had to pay.3 Yet, Bell illustrates that an important factor in the rise of German power during this period, was that they were defeated in World War One, but not destroyed.

    • Word count: 2257

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