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# University Degree: Statistics

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• Marked by Teachers essays 1
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1. ## Business Statistics. The aims of this report for AllRepairs mechanics are to systemectically review on the efficiency of repair staff towards assigned jobs and customers satisfaction levels towards the services provided through a series of statistic

experienced repaired staffs were assigned for jobs with lower difficulty level ( easy, standard ), while the more experienced assigned to undertake hard jobs * Jobs were completed mostly between 25 - 35 minutes * Time taken to undertake jobs increase with the associated difficulty level * There is a similar trend for the efficiency of repair staff towards the completion of easy or standard level of tasks, while for hard tasks, there is a significant upward trend of time taken for mechanics 4 compared to mechanics 1, 2 and 3 with gradually increase and the least of increase in time taken respectively.

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2. ## Dorfman, Robert (1943) essay 'The detection of defective members of large populations

In conjunction, Dorfman uses the analogy of discussing blood samples as one application of the quality control methodology. Ultimately, TDDMLP can be utilised in proving indirectly that undergoing shortcuts do not completely reduce quality, if and only if the analytical theory is supported by it. With Dorfman's main objective to identify defective individual members of a large populace in a less "expensive and tedious process", informs the reader that testing of combined samples can be beneficial in an economical way.

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3. ## Denmark Investment

in the scatter plot. Since a maximum value of 1 indicates a perfect fit and a value closer to 0 indicates no apparent relationship, a value of 0.76 suggests a reasonably good fit. However, macroeconomic theory explains that there are several other important factors which can influence real GDP, such as interest rates and savings, which have not been included in the simple regression. This may engender autocorrelation, which is more likely to arise when utilising time series for regression analysis.

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4. ## Non-Response Bias

There are also those who relentlessly refuse to take part in surveys. Nonresponse is classified into unit and item nonresponse. Unit nonresponse appears when the sampling units in the selected sample do not participate in the survey. Item nonresponse arises when for some units who agree to participate information obtained is incomplete, because they refuse to answer specific questions, such as on their income (Korinek, Mistiaen et al. 2005). The response and nonresponse rates, as well as the associated bias, vary depending on the type of the survey such as, telephone survey, mail survey or personal interview.

• Word count: 1450
5. ## The Advantages and Disadvantages of Quota Sampling Compared to Random Sampling

The biggest case for it is that is incredibly cheap to carry out. Travel costs are much cheaper, as your objective is to satisfy your quota, of course this would be constrained by the control, i.e. if you have to sample 50 women, then you just need to sample the first 50 women you find, regardless of where they live, saving lots of time and money on travelling (Moser & Stuart, 1953). In random sampling methods, all the population needs to be listed first before you can use a random number generator to select your sample; this process is completely eliminated when using the quota sampling method.

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6. ## Quality analysis for AllRepairs mechanics

different experiences, thirdly I measure whether the customer satisfaction reaches the goal of the company and analyze which factors affect the satisfaction rate, last I put forward my conclusion and give some suggestions. Discussion and Analysis This part shows the entire research process. Figure 1 The Mechanic feature1 Figure 1 shows that workers with different experience share nearly the same amount of the jobs. Figure 2 The Difficulty feature Figure2 shows that nearly 60.8% of the repairing jobs are standard, 28% of the jobs are easy, and the hard jobs are the least, which account for 11.3%.

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7. ## Econometrics Ordinary Least Squares Coursework (year 2)

Error terms vs residuals. The error term - is the disturbance term of the PRF. It represents factors other than X that affect Y and is calculated as the difference between the actual data point and the estimated value of Y from the PRF. The residual is the difference between the actual value of Y and its fitted value: In most cases we cannot calculate the parameters for PRF, therefore we cannot calculate the error term, which is why the residual is used more often in empirical studies.

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8. ## How to lie with statistics

Final argument is how important is to make correct assumptions also known as false or misleading presuppositions. The first argument is that: "there are several types of averages such as median, mode and mean, so averages hide a lot of information" . Even though in most of the cases arithmetic mean is used as an average, other two averages can be used as well. To prove the argument above, let's assume we are given a collection of values {1,2,3,4,20,20,20}. Then, arithmetic mean is the sum of all values from the set, divided by the number of values.

• Word count: 1616
9. ## Correlation and regression and time series analysis

The word possible is necessary here because it is not always like that. As we see in the appendix table that for example the company with the lowest number of sales, Ebro Puleva (2 billion), has more employees than Tate & Lyle (4.800 employees and 3.5 billion) while they have a bigger number of sales than Ebro Puleva. However, I suggest that there could be a correlation between the number of employees and the sales. Graph 1.1 shows this relationship: The graph illustrates the relationship between the number of sales and the number of employees is linear with the correlation coefficient of 0.922568.

• Word count: 1110
10. ## Titanic Stats

General equilibrium of the age (mean) is greater than the median, which means that the whole tendency of the age goes rightward, resulting in positive skewness (rightward skewed distribution). As we can see in bar chart below, there is a high frequency in ages 20 and 30, resulting in an asymmetry distribution. Age 80 in this case is an outlier; its value is too high with respect to the other ages. There was only one person who was 80, out of 1309 passengers. The kurtosis index is low (0.14) suggesting a hypo-normal (more flat) distribution relative to a normal distribution.

• Word count: 1505
11. ## Quantitative Methods

is very close to the median (59.66), the points on the distribution appear approximately symmetrical. We can assume that the distribution is very close to a normal distribution. The standard deviation describes how the share prices cluster around the mean. In here, the standard deviation is relatively small which indicates that the share price is stable during this period. Kurtosis is "a measure of whether the data are peaked or flat relative to a normal distribution"1 and "is based on the differences around the mean raised to the fourth power."2 Because a normal distribution would have a kurtosis of zero, a negative kurtosis here indicates flatness of the distribution3.

• Word count: 1965
12. ## Statistics Unit 1 IP

I have chosen to analyze the qualitative variable of gender and the quantitative variable of overall job satisfaction. Qualitative Variable - Gender Gender was chosen as my qualitative variable because gender is categorized in one of two categories: male or female. This qualitative variable was categorized as 1 for male and 2 for female. When setting up the frequency table, the gender column in the predetermined data set was copied into a separate Excel worksheet. Since there are two categories (1 and 2), the bin range was set at 1 and 2.

• Word count: 1149
13. ## Critical Analysis of a Research Paper The paper I am going to analyse is taken from the journal of strength and conditioning research. It was written by Ledford, A., and Branch, J,D. The paper focuses on the effects of creatine supplementation on peak

The abstract follows on to give a more detailed account of the research with a summary of results. There is also a sentence at the end which outlines the conclusions found. It states that 'the practical application of the study is that 5 days of creatine monohydrate supplementation did not increase wingate test peak power production and work capacity in women.' (Ledford, A., Branch, J,D. 1999) The abstract uses a lot of abbreviations which makes it easier for the author to write. The reader may find this difficult to follow. There are two small sections at the end, the first listing key words used, the second detailing reference data.

• Word count: 1903
14. ## Qualitative research - assignment 1

They are two different classifications of data but due to there many similarities can sometimes be classed as one.) ratio data is measured on a ratio scale similarly to interval data it has equal numbers of units or intervals, It uses zero to represent a missing value and it is impossible to have a negative value. An example of this would be distance covered on the bruce protocol test or VO2 max. Ordinal data is often referred to as ranking data, gives a numerical value to the order of different variables but doesn't indicate the actual scores for example ordered scales (never, rarely, sometimes, often, all the time)

• Word count: 1530
15. ## Swimming times

I will use line graphs to illustrate the data that I have collected because they will be easy to compare with each other. I intend to use average and standard deviation as calculations to represent my data. The hypothesis for the question, are men faster at swimming than women? Will be, "men are faster than women at 100m freestyle than women.". I am proposing the hypothesis in this way simply because men have a larger physical strength than women. The question, does the amount of people from a certain club in an event effect the speed of the people in that club?

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16. ## The aim of this literature review is to look at the strengths and limitations of ethnographical research and also look at the origins and applications of this type of research method

gathering and using unstructured data, (c) using a relatively small number of informants, and (d) interpreting the meanings of human behaviour. To do a ethnographical experiment the experimenter needs to select a project area of interest collect data with interviews and also make ethnographical observations after all the data has been collected an analysis must be done so results can be drawn and then the findings written up into a report or journal. The first ethnographical research was adopted from a anthropologist called Bronislaw Malinowski, who published the book "Argonauts of the Western Pacific" in 1922.

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17. ## maths cars coursework

Moreover if I were to add a line of best fit this, would help me to predict and calculate the differences between the low data and the high data. I can then analyze all of the data carefully and accurately and then I will be able to write a constructive summary of the investigation in general. Hypothesis I predict that if as I investigate the comparisons of cars I would state that I believe the most popular coloured car are red the reason for this is for as I glance at the first page of data this to me is the modal number.

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18. ## Why sociologists choose either quantitative or qualitative research method?

Sociologists choose quantitative research method because it allows you to test your hypothesis. Emile Durkheim (1897) was a positivist's sociologist who believes that showing a statistical data on a research is valid because it is a social fact. He used statistics to test his hypothesis, "Suicide is caused by lack of social integration". He said that catholic and protestant religions differ in how well they integrate. Using official statistics he revealed how protestant had a higher suicide rate than catholic. Statistics showed him that his hypothesis was right. Quantitative research method allowed him to test his hypothesis.

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19. ## Statistics Coursework

I have included both sets of graphs in my work. Hypothesis 1 The higher the mileage the lower the value of the car. I expect my graphs to show that the greater the mileage the lower the value of the car. To investigate this hypothesis I used a bar chart and scatter graph (see graphs) From my results I can see that the number of owners does affect the price of a car. I worked out the mean for my results by adding up my used car price data and my number of owners data and then adding the two

• Word count: 1093
20. ## Analysis of official crime statistic

The majority of crimes are not reported to the police at all. (BCS 98 p.19) People are not willing to report crimes to the police due to various reasons: firstly, an awareness problem. Some individuals, organisations or government bodies may not be aware that a crime has been committed against them. The ingenuity of the fraudster, the complexity of the act, lack of knowledge and vigilance of the victim can make the crime invisible. (Jupp et al., XX: 7) Secondly, the normalisation problem.

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21. ## Statistics however often help provide powerful interpretations when it comes to generalizing information because they are able to allow the viewer to see shapes and patterns by using graphs that may not be apparent when interpreted just as numbers.

Statistics are never able present the absolute truth because they are generalizing the information they attain. The population of a country for example, changes every moment due to deaths, births, and immigration. We cannot present the actual total population of a country; therefore we must learn how to make accurate assumptions when creating statistics on a country's population. This is also known as Demography. In Geography, I learned that the methods for demography might include finding the average number of people in one household; then manipulating that estimated number to find a country's population. Since the foundations of our calculations are based on estimates of the absolute truth, the errors of our assumptions will magnify when this information is being manipulated.

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22. ## Statistical Analysis: Homework at IU

This is a procedure that is based on sample evidence and probability theory to determine whether the hypothesis is a reasonable statement. Hypothesis testing is a five-step procedure: Step 1. State the null and alternative hypotheses. The null hypothesis is a hypothesis about a population parameter. It is often the reverse of what the experimenter actually believes; it is put forward to allow the data to contradict it. Step 2. Select the level of significance. This is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true.

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23. ## Crime Statistics.

If the latter is true, this has severe implications for the use of such information when demonstrating current crime trends (Louw, 2001). The most important feature of police crime statistics is that they tell us about crimes that the public report and the police record. As a result, crime statistics often say more about reporting patterns and police procedure than about actual crime levels (Maguire, Morgan, & Reiner, 1994). Nevertheless, police statistics provide useful information on the following: By analysing the number of crimes recorded by the police in a given time period and in a particular geographic area, changes in crime levels over time can be tracked.

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24. ## "Positivist researchers adopt a quantitative methodology and carry out surveys and questionnaires - Interpretevist researchers adopt a qualitative methodology and carry out interviews and ethnographies - Drawing on examples of research skills, Explain why

Therefore, in their eyes the study of feelings or human behaviour was not considered valid within the scientific approach. Watson and Skinner's research into behaviourism within the field of psychology was very much a product of this line of thought. Popper introduced the idea that theories within science should be "falsifiable". The basis behind this idea is that all hypotheses should be tested rigorously to try to prove that they are wrong. He argued that finding confirmation for a hypothesis was too easy and that people often ignored or overlooked observations that might disprove their theories - this was his main Page 2/6 criticism of Marxism for example.

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25. ## Official statistics can be used as a general research tool covering topics ranging from the economy to unemployment and from health to education.

Unfortunately, 'crime' has changed over that period of time. Therefore the comparability of offences and offence groupings over time is very problematic. Criminal statistics are subject to changing definitions of offences, although recent and planned changes in counting rules are pushing figures up towards a more realistic level. Changes introduces in 1999, for example, included common assault for the first time and led to 12% increase in the total number of offences. Another reason for official statistics not giving an accurate representation of crime levels is the fact that a lot of crime occurs that is not reported.

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"Statistical thinking will one day be as necessary for efficient citizenship as the ability to read and write."

-H.G. Wells

All around you, data is being collected. Scientists collect data for their research, companies collect data for marketing purposes, and Google Street View cars roll down backstreets, collecting still more data. It can be hard to find a clear path through such a vast jungle of information. Luckily, we havestatisticians to guide us. If you want to be one of the chosen ones, cutting through the confusion to reveal the causality beneath, a university degree in statistics could be for you.

Well-written reports are an important part of success in a statistics degree, and will be especially critical if you go on to work in industry. If you want to improve your writing skills, try browsing Marked by Teachers' collection of student-submitted statistics papers. Studying the teacher-annotated examples will speed you along that learning curve until you're earning the marks you deserve.

Statistics graduates may take a higher degree in the same subject, or a related subject like mathematics; and go on to careers in areas including finance, insurance and business.

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