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University Degree: Anthropology

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  1. Why was the concept of race so important to anthropology in the late 19th Century and why did that change ?

    Race as a concept was first used to justify bad treatments of colonised people in the American colonies. In her essay published in the academic review American Anthropolical, Smedley argues that "Europeans justified their attitude toward human differences by focusing on the physical features of the New World populations, magnifying and exaggerating their differences, and concluding that the Africans and Indians and their descendants were lesser forms of human beings, and that their inferiority was natural and/or God-given" (1998, p.694).

    • Word count: 1924
  2. Are menstrual taboos simply a form of womens subordination?

    Menstrual taboos are a cross-cultural phenomenon; Buckley and Gottlieb state: "Menstrual taboos have been seen by turn as evidence of primitive irrationality and of the supposed universal dominance of men over women in society. (Buckley and Gottlieb 1988: 3)". For many cultures this requires the woman to be isolated and made aware of her inferior status. It is difficult however, to study different cultures on a case-by-case basis, as menstrual taboos are quite complex even though they appear to reoccur worldwide.

    • Word count: 1899
  3. No- Violencia Racionalizacin

    estatal , que es una idea fundada en cimientos de la contra-argumentaci�n Benjamineana5 ( la cesi�n o no violencia en el n�cleo de las relaciones personales. Terminaci�n de la violencia en nombre de la conformaci�n del estado que conforma una "violencia legal"). Reformulada en los 90's por Gary Becker en una recuperaci�n de la teor�a de Beccaria (Crimin�logo del siglo XVIII) que se compone de 3 elementos: A) el castigo es es racional para la sociedad no s�lo porque "saca al criminal de de circulaci�n" (el motivo de incapacitaci�n)

    • Word count: 1336
  4. Day-to-day, there are a number of issues that could impact a person's development, cause distress, and guide behaviors. An attempt is made looking at how health care, immigration, and prejudice issues have an impact on an individual's social and political

    As we grow, we go through developmental stages in life; how fast and productive is dependent on cognitive ability. Both Freud and Piaget have humans going through stages of development (Carducci, 2002). Damage to a person's cognition either through growth, could have an impact on the success of each developmental stage. Cognitive development is the construction of thought processes, including remembering, problem solving, and decision-making, from childhood through adolescence to adulthood. A social component is any condition outside the person that affects of is affected by the development. Development takes place through increasingly complex processes in which an active organism interacts with persons, objects, and symbols in its immediate environment (Bronfenbrenner, 1998).

    • Word count: 1999
  5. Guns Germs and Steel

    In some case as Diamond explains the difference between growth and the large gap between civilizations development occurred only hundreds of miles away from one another and not just from a continent apart. He uses the Polynesian culture as one of his primary examples of explaining these principles. Diamond takes two groups of Polynesian cultures, the Moriori and Maori people. These two cultures according to Diamond were ethnically essentially the same people, however, because one happened to early on in history take a ship to what would end up being the Chatham Islands ended up settling there.

    • Word count: 1166
  6. Free essay

    Discuss some of the key ways that anthropologists have proposed people think through animals and food. In India animals and food are particularly linked to hygiene and purity rules including different castes (Douglas, 1966). In this essay I intend to disc

    This belief that food and happiness can become a single object explains why there is such a wide definition of the word 'k?t' - food, happiness, nourishment and prosperity being a few of these. Another metaphorical representation of thinking in Kyrgyz culture is the way sheep meat is distributed between Kyrgyz people, which is related to both their gender and status, which is in turn linked to their seating position within the tent (Bunn, 2008: 13-15). It seems that, for Kyrgyz people, sharing meat is very much about showing how they think about themselves in relation to others.

    • Word count: 1921
  7. Forensic Analysis

    Morton had no relationship with Mr. O'Hara. After hearing what each attorney had to say and reviewing the crime scene and skeletal material, I have made my decision of which man this unidentified body belongs to and whether or not Mr. O'Hara was responsible for causing his death. Upon developing my conclusion, I began my critical thinking while focusing on the crime scene. Many key items were discovered in the woods that the police taped off. Of the most importance were the skeletal remains -both human bones and deer bones were found.

    • Word count: 1870
  8. Anthropology Interview

    Katie McCormick Anthropology 104 Interview Assignment May 7, 2009 Viewing the World Outside of My Own Culture I interviewed Rasheed, a Muslim graduate student at Marquette University, early in April at the library. Rasheed is a South Pakistan Muslim who came to the United States and to Marquette University in August 2007 to earn a graduate degree. His parents came from India, and presently live in Pakistan, as does his younger, brother. He visited his two older sisters, who live in the United States, before he made the decision to come to school in the U.S.

    • Word count: 1529
  9. Nanook and the Innocent Eskimo

    They were met by what we consider today to be the traditional Eskimo, which are igloo-building, dog sledding people, who ate blubber and wear fur parkas. Writings were sent back to the US and Europe, solidifying the entire Arctic natives as the stereotype of the smiling Eskimo who acted as a universal, despite the fact that, according to Riordan, "[the people] these generalized images are based accounted for less than 5 percent of the approximately fifty thousand people who made the Arctic their home in the nineteenth century."

    • Word count: 1406
  10. The many sides of abortion issue in poland

    There have always been different views concerning the ethical and the social acceptability of abortion. In Poland, abortion is illegal and is considered to be morally wrong but in some cases it should be acceptable and legal. Legally or illegally, abortion is practiced in almost every country in the world. Currently, over 60 % of the world's population lives in countries where abortion is permitted for medical and social reasons ("World Abortion Laws 2008 Fact Sheet"). Globally, of a total of 46 million abortions each year, 20 million are illegal, according to the World Health Organisation.

    • Word count: 1583
  11. How do new world monkeys and old world monkeys differ?

    The Old World monkeys also tend to have relatively longer and narrower skulls (Ibid.). Teeth In the jaws, there are also recognizable dental differences, in that the platyrrhines have three premolars, giving a dental formula of 2:1:3:3 (Swindler 2002, 40), and the catarrhines have two premolars, giving a dental formula of 2:1:2:3 (Ibid. p. 44). Catarrhines also have sharp-edged, sectorial premolars on either side of the mandible, specialized for honing the upper canines, sharpening them in preparation for tearing apart food. Catarrhine molars are bilophodant as well-teeth that have two transverse ridges. These molars feature shearing, dagger-like cusps (Fleagle 1999, 186)

    • Word count: 1345
  12. Form and Function: Primate locomotion

    The shoulder area reflects this as the glenoid cavity is somewhat narrower and more restrictive than the other species (Cambridge University Press 1992, 76). The clavicle is relatively shorter as well, and the humeral head is not as enlarged as that in the other species. This shows that it is unlikely that the mandrill carries much weight anteriorly. Gibbon Gibbons (Hylobates), on the other hand, are wholly arboreal, and live in the canopies of forests (Napier and Napier 1997, 162).

    • Word count: 1987
  13. Some mental disorders are culture bound. Discuss in relation to at least one example.

    Thus demonstrating that the definitions of what is a mental disorder are not fixed and are very much related to what is considered socially acceptable in a particular society and at the time of their existence. The nature of this is rooted in what Foucault calls the 'order of reason' which is what is considered reasonable given a particular time and is shown in the methods for explaining things. Mental illness is often considered in opposition to this reason. An example of differing orders of reason would be if today a psychiatrist suggested treating mental health issues with exorcism it would not be accepted where as 400 years ago it would have.

    • Word count: 1807
  14. Free essay

    To what extent has participatory development succeded in its aims?

    This was done by 'the involvement of different members of a society-groups and subgroups-in the decisions that will affect their lives, now and in the future' Nolan 2002:21). This involvement in the development process aimed to empower the people and allowed their destiny to be managed from within their own reality, not from alien outside forms of knowledge previously imposed upon them. Now the two forms of knowledge interact with each other and it is this indigenous knowledge or popular knowledge that is seen as the key to the success of participatory development, it is the very thing that is the result of the participation process and the basis for developmental change.

    • Word count: 1781
  15. In light of examples, examine the claim that individualism is a Western ideology

    in 18th century thought. It had varying uses both positive and negative. However, in France it was mainly the negative usage that had the most prevalence. It was perceived as a negative concept because it was seen as a threat to social order, the state and religious dominance because it atomized people and placed them and their interests as paramount to that of society. It was a recipe for social disaster. However, the positive justifications of individualism came from Enlightenment thinkers such as Kant, Locke and Rousseau who refused to go back to a source of authority "higher than individual conscience" 1971:48.

    • Word count: 1520
  16. Effects on economy due to a food outlet

    Economic afflictions and discernment of gross social prejudice have given a rise to ideological terrorist groups. Factors such as, rural unemployment, the absence of land developments, and mistreatment of landless labourers by land owners, etc. were the reasons for the attacks(Raman, 2003). The terrorist attacks included grave explosions which killed many people. "I heard two explosions and I was wondering what happened. Then a b**b went off right in front of me," said Malchand Bagoria, who manages a fruit stall in Jaipur (AFP,2008). Jaipur can potentially become a terrorist attack zone. If an event like this has happened in the past then the likeliness for a repeated attack is highly possible.

    • Word count: 1770
  17. Children and warfare, are their rights being violated?

    Enemy Lines Warfare, Childhood, and Play in Batticaloa by Margaret Trawick. Margaret Trawick lived and worked in Batticaloa in eastern Sri Lanka, where thousands of youths have been recruited into the Sri Lankan armed resistance movement known as the Tamil Tigers. This compelling account of her experiences is a powerful exploration of how children respond to the presence of war and how adults have responded to the presence of children in this conflict. Sergeant Nathan Ross Chapman was the 1st U.S. service person to be killed by unfriendly fire in Afghanistan.

    • Word count: 1770
  18. Myth & History in Amazonian Society

    He wrote that in meeting Alejandro, he was forced to reevaluate what he already knew about the Shuar and how he understood others and himself. He discovered that there was no possibility for an unbiased meeting between Euro-Americans and indigenous peoples anymore due to hundreds of years of interaction and how each side understands the other, their history, and also themselves. Rubenstein also pointed out that more often than not, myths are viewed as expressions of culture and not related to history.

    • Word count: 1488
  19. The significance of Guanxi.

    Some believe Guanxi is a deep rooted fact of Chinese culture, Douglas Guthrie (1998) in his journal ' Declining significance of Guanxi in China's economic transition' argues that 'Guanxi as an institutionally defined system - i.e. a system that depends on the institutional structure of society rather than on culture - that is changing in stride with the institutional changes of the reform era. The typical English interpretation of Guanxi is networking. This however does not reflect the implications that Guanxi embodies.

    • Word count: 1516
  20. The formation of national character.

    collection of individuals, and the manners of individuals are frequently determined by these causes.2 In other words; according to Hume the character of an individual is determined by moral causes. A nation is made up of individuals and the character of a nation therefore depends on moral causes rather than physical causes. He explicitly rejects the idea that 'men owe anything of their temper or genius to the air, food or climate.'3 To support his theory, Hume sums up a number of examples in which nations all around the globe show signs of national characters which are not formed under the influence of air or climate.

    • Word count: 1699
  21. BaMbuti Pygmies of the Ituri Forest in Congo Africa

    Some use spears, and others use a bow and arrow with a poison tip. Once the animal is chased and caught in the net the spear or a knife id used to quickly dispatch the animal. They hunt these animals in groups in which there may be several layers of family involved. This is why it is important in other areas to get along and make these socio-political marital ties so that there may be a successful hunt and enough food gathered. When an elephant was brought down they disbanded the camp and relocated it as it was easier than moving the downed elephant.

    • Word count: 1623
  22. The Ethnographic Film as a Visual Aid to Understanding a Culture alongside a Text

    These films depict the Yanomamo culture and their natural environment, several significant rituals and customs, as well as everyday activities (Biella, Chagnon, & Seaman, 1997). Chagnon narrates throughout most of the films, explaining what is going on, though in The Ax Fight he and Asch are audio-recorded having a conversation about the fight that had erupted and was the centerpiece of the film. In this particular film freeze-frame editing and slow motion replay are utilized to make this film useful as a methodological tool in ethnography and prove essential to the deciphering of complex kinship patterns among the Yanomamo.

    • Word count: 1899
  23. Mulitple Ways of Knowing thePast

    It also shows the clash between anthropologists and other active observers of the ancient remains. By examining the differing opinions of the past and evaluating their benefit to contemporary society, one may better figure how archaeologists can integrate alternative interpretations without compromising their validity. Scattered across the British Isles are megalithic structures like Stonehenge that attract not only archaeologists, but over two-hundred and fifty-thousand pagans throughout Britain. Stonehenge has been considered a sacred ground for pagans since the 18th century, yet most pagans are not focused on replicating past traditions, but rather evolving the practice into a modern system inspired by those traditions.

    • Word count: 1263
  24. bedouin society

    Part one also explains how honor and autonomy are associated with each other, and the fact that not everyone in the community is autonomous or equal to each other. The book suggests that generally, men that are well respected among the Awlad' Ali are more autonomous than the women, children, the poor, and the men that are not respected in the community. Abu-Lughod also details that respect is gained by living up to the standards of the code of honor that the community has set for its people.

    • Word count: 1166
  25. Why has the concept of exchange proven such a useful tool in anthropology?

    As Mauss stated in the famous text, 'Primitive Classification', written with Durkheim (1963), there is rationality in primitive thought thus leading him to believe that analysis of the organization of reality in archaic societies sheds a light on the role of the collective consciousness in the shaping of society (Durkheim, Mauss 1963, p. 81-88). This collective consciousness is abundant in meaning, and as a result it introduces sense and purpose into the social which can then be read in the thoughts and actions of the individual.

    • Word count: 1649

"It may be in the cultural particularities of people - in their oddities - that some of the most instructive revelations of what it is to be generically human are to be found."

?Clifford Geertz

If you love challenging your assumptions and learning about different cultures, then maybe you'd enjoy studying anthropology at the university level. Anthropology is a broad discipline dealing with every aspect of humanlife, culture, and society, with particular emphasis placed on cultural relativism. It can be studied on its own, or joint with a related subject like ancient history or geography.

Advanced writing skills will be invaluable during any anthropology degree. To get up to speed, study Marked by Teachers' collection of student-submitted anthropology and social studies essays. The essays might spark an idea for a topic, and the teacher annotations will show you how to edit papers to perfection.

Anthropology students can remain in the field; take higher degrees in a related subject like sociology; or pursue careers in a wide variety of fields,including marketing, HR, media and consulting.


Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • How useful is the term "counter-culture" to describe developments in Western Society during the 1960s? Discuss with reference to any three of the five disciplines represented in Block 6.

    "To sum up there was no single counter culture but several movements which posed challenges to "mainstream society" I agree to a degree with Ray Davis of the pop group the Kinks who said "that the so-called "Freedom of the Sixties was a myth, that the so-called "counter-culture" never really infiltrated society and that the establishment continued to rule" (Block 6, pg 175) I agree that the establishment did continue to rule and that the sixties did not witness a political or economic revolution but it had great impact on personal and social life . In his autobiography Jim Haynes', 'Thanks for Coming!' shows the deflation felt by many at the end of the sixties. He says 'the end of the sixties came as an incredible collapse [...[we weren't going to change the world. We could only maybe change ourselves a bit. And I think that this resulted in a depression.' (Resource Book 4, page 24) I think this shows that many involved in the "counter-culture movements felt they were trying to change the world and its thanks to their "disanchantment with mainstream culture that has allowed future generations new freedoms in morality; tolerance, equality and acceptance. (Word 1810)"

  • Discuss some of the recurrent themes in western representations of the non-European 'other'.

    "What is clear from discussing these different representations of the 'other' we have is that while they may focus on very different locations, and completely different sets of misinterpretations, they all share some very common grounds - both in the way these representations are formed, and more importantly the way these representations are criticized and rejected. Therefore in conclusion, while there will always be different names given to the ways we may represent certain areas around the world, it is likely that there will always be one combined perceived 'other' that an ignorant westerner may apply very similar frameworks to, no matter how different they may actually be."

  • Assess the evidence for and against the 'media imperialism theory'

    "Conclusion Through these points I hopefully have given a small indication of what the arguments for and against the media imperialism debate are all about. Generally the criticism is levelled at the most dominant world force, America. It is true that during the whole of the 90's the Americans have sought to eliminate the international trade barriers that exist worldwide in order to capitalise on the possible financial rewards available. There may in the future be massive benefits from the weaker nations use of western orientated material, but that is far from clear. It is extremely debateable whether access to western media content is detrimental, as essentially everyone has a choice in the way that they act and the attitudes and beliefs that they chose to adopt. So in effect there will only be a negative effect on the culture of third world, developing or weaker nation if the people who are part of that culture let it slip away (Hutchinson: 1999: 200)."

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