"Because nationalism rests on no more than an emotive appeal to 'tribal' loyalties, in a pluralistic society it is always a recipe for conflict". Discuss.
"Because nationalism rests on no more than an emotive appeal to 'tribal' loyalties, in a pluralistic society it is always a recipe for conflict". Discuss. Nationalism is key and central in the study of world politics. Indeed, within the political spectrum, nationalism is perhaps the strongest emotion in the human psyche. Even the likes of religion, class, individual or group interest are in general, overshadowed by nationalism in today's politics.1 The 20th century highlighted the nationalism issue with the break up of many states such as the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia who are important in light that there was a great deal of bloodshed in the process. Furthermore, the ongoing conflict in Northern Ireland and the nationalist activities in Spain, would suggest that nationalism undoubtedly leads to conflict and perhaps even war. However, not all believe that nationalist passions are negative. Ernest Gellner believes that nationalism was critical in the founding of a modern industrial society.2 Nationalism can be seen to encourage creative thought in society and help economies flourish as is the case with the Republic of Ireland which gained independence through nationalist movement. This is why the discussion over whether nationalism is a recipe for conflict is necessary. In tackling the issue of nationalism, it is wise to first define the term. This in itself can be difficult
"Did nationalism exist before the late eighteenth century?"
"Did nationalism exist before the late eighteenth century?" There are many historians, namely the "modernist" school of thought, who would pinpoint the beginning of nationalism as being from the French Revolution of 1789. E.J. Hobsbawm for instance, makes reference to the theories of Miroslav Hroch, for example, who would have argued that nationalism certainly did not come into being before 1789.1 While this statement can certainly be supported, it can also be called into question, as many historians have done in recent years. It is ultimately up to the individual to make up his or her own mind, however, I will now discuss the various arguments, as well as putting forward some of my own thoughts on the question and attempt to draw up my own conclusion. From the mid-1960s until quite recently, there was a widely held belief that nationalism was a product of the events in of the late eighteenth century in Europe. However, in more recent years, this view has been increasingly challenged by various historians. Peter Alter raises the question, "From which point is it possible to say that any type of nationalism exists?" 2, demonstrating just how ambiguous this issue is. What has been made clear to me while researching this topic is that in order to come to any sort of conclusion, one must maintain a clear definition of nationalism. Therefore, I feel it is vital that we
The merger of ideas found in the article on Southernization by Shaffer and Clancy-Smith's article of localizing histories are indeed the most convincing, and offer a semi-satisfactory method of researching and teaching world history.
Approach to Studying World History In the course of reading the different approaches to world history, two particular arguments and models stand out. The merger of ideas found in the article on Southernization by Shaffer and Clancy-Smith's article of localizing histories are indeed the most convincing, and offer a semi-satisfactory method of researching and teaching world history. Shaffer's argument that the development of diverse variables1 in a given area would lead the researcher to find influences and dynamic interaction with other areas, provides two models in studying world history: (1) an organic and gradual social and economic developmental process, and (2) with what Voll calls "overlapping networks" that provide a connection between different peoples and civilizations. This model could be applied to practically any civilization in the world, as it sets its starting point in a given locality irrespective of a timeline. Thus you could start your exploration of world history in 2500 B.C.E or 1600 C.E. However I was uncomfortable with the notion of attributing a sort of "spreading" of Southernization (much like theories of Westernization). Oddly, I picture jam being spread over a world map. His concept seems sound in that it ties together various dynamics and effects across the globe in many cases, but by calling it Southernization it implies that a personalized
Liberal democracy is just the tyranny of the majority. Discuss with reference to at least two concepts from liberal political thought.
"Liberal democracy is just the tyranny of the majority." Discuss with reference to at least two concepts from liberal political thought. We all live in a liberal democratic country. Most of us appreciate it. The United Kingdom may not be perfect but at least we have democracy. We are free, we have thousands of possibilities to achieve success in our lives - what more could we want? Well, what if we are wrong? What if liberal democracy is nothing more but the tyranny of the majority? Maybe we are not free at all because in fact the majority decides what we can and cannot do. In my work I am going to try to answer the question: "Is liberal democracy just the tyranny of the majority?". The issue of the tyranny of the majority goes back as far as Plato's famous work titled Republic. In 399 B.C. Plato's master, Socrates, was sentenced for death and executed. 56% of the jury, which consisted of 500 male citizens of Athens, found him guilty of disbelieving the gods recognized by the state, and corrupting the youth. It was the reason why Plato was against democracy - he thought the mob has no knowledge enough to lead a country and believed the state should be ruled by a philosopher king who knows what people's needs are. In Republic he says: 'Till philosophers become kings, or those now named kings and rules give themselves to philosophy truly and rightly ... states will have no
Magical Reaslism in Like Water for Chocolate
Magical Realism in Like Water for Chocolate Ryan Patel Tuesday, December 04, 2007 What makes a novel more interesting? There is an array of literary devices and techniques which can be exhausted to make a text more entertaining. One of these devices is magical realism, and this is prominent in many novels. In Laura Esquivel's novel Like Water for Chocolate magical realism is used in the portrayal of the effect of food on those that consume it, as well as in the depiction of love between characters Magical realism is a predominantly Latin American literary style or genre which incorporates elements of fantasy into reality.i When magical realism is applied, the the extraordinary even does not seem strange or abnormal to the characters in the text. Magical realism can be applied to living and non-living things, and in Like Water for Chocolate it is applied to both. In Like Water for Chocolate magical realism is applied to food. One example of howmagical realism is applied in food is during the birth of Tita, the main character of the novel. The books states, "Tita was so sensitive to onions, anytime they were being chopped, they say she would just cry and cry...Once her wailing got so violent that it brought on an early labor"ii This is magical realism because there is no way that the Tita would have been able to be affected by the smell of the onions while she was
What is Communitarianism? Is it of any relevance to the 21st Century?
What is Communitarianism? Is it of any relevance to the 21st Century? Communitarianism can be briefly characterized as the view that the community, rather than the individual, the state, the nation or any other entity, should be thought of as the key focus of analysis, and should be at the centre of our value system (Lent, 112:1999) * Communitarians emphasise the social nature of individuals, relationships and institutions. * They tend to stress the value of specifically communal and public goods and the public interest than on autonomy. * Communitarians claim values and beliefs exist in public spaces, in which debate takes place. * Communitarianism emphasizes the interest of communities and societies as a whole over those of the individual and the need to balance individual rights. In other words Communitarianism opposes individualism. Is Communitarianism new? * None of these themes of Communitarianism are new. * They have featured in many kinds of political thought from the works of Aristotle onwards. The views held by communitarians formed an important part of ideas of a whole range of thinkers down the centuries: liberals, feminists, Marxists, conservatives, socialists, republicans, greens and social democrats. * However, Communitarianism as a body of thought is new. In the last five or six years Communitarian ideas have made their way into the speeches and
how political ideologies have affected the NHS
An Ideological analysis of Public Service provision in the U.K FDA Public Servicing Louise Birchley The following will be found in this essay; how the liberal democratic, the socialist and the 'New Right' perspectives would describe the public service provision in Britain. Also information about what their ideal provision would be will be included. Social policy will be explained and defined, and examples of policy and practice that effects public service provisions will be included, in particular how political ideologies have influenced the NHS. A definition of the word 'ideology' is 'an orientation that characterises the thinking of a group or nation' this definition, in simple terms means a set of ideas that are dominant within a group or nation. An ideology is an organised collection of ideas. The main purpose behind an ideology is to offer change in society through a normative thought process. Social policy was developed in the early part of the 20th century, it was aimed at people who were professionally involved in the administration of welfare. Welfare refers to 'well being' it also refers to the services that are provided to protect people in different conditions including sickness, old age and childhood. Social policy is particularly concerned with the welfare state and social services; it
A Comparative Analysis On Nationalism, National Identity and Britishness/Englishness.
Cenap Cakmak Paper for the Course "Topics in European Intellectual and Cultural History" Professor Richard Sher A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ON NATINALISM, NATIONAL IDENTITY AND BRITISHNESS/ENGLISHNESS: "Nationalism" has long been regarded as one of the most controversial phenomena among scholars of related fields. In addition, it has attracted many from various disciplines, including, but not limited to, political science, history, sociology, theology, and so forth. The questions such as "what is nationalism?", "when did it first emerge?", "what impacts has it had up until now?" can be somehow answered, even though there would be no consensus on the answers. However, when it comes to the questions such as "why do people feel that they belong to a certain nation?", "how does a nation emerge and evolve?", "what does constitute a nation?", and "what are the precise differences between a nation and a gathering of people?", it is hard, -and even one may claim impossible- to give satisfactory answers. As a matter of fact, there have been a few attempts to deal with the latter ones, whereas a large number of studies have been introduced with regard to first set of questions. Those who have chosen to perform the hard task have come up with different solutions and paradigms. One of the reasons behind the differentiation among the outcomes of studies concerned is, of course, differences
Turkish Foreign Policy Last 10 Years
INTRODUCTION In recent years, there is an impression in public that when it is said "Turkish foreign policy is multi-dimensional",the situations which are special to Turkey,which make policy prerogative,which need special skills are neglected. In another words, "multi-dimensionalism" is presented,by the government, as a new property af our foreign policy that brings reputation to our country,and this enables us see the truth. Today's Turkey is 17th largest economy of the world and is a member of G20 and Un Security Council,more self-confided and more ambitious regional power.Turkey is in a position that could leave a mark in the 21st century with its existing potential.However,achiving this is bound to conserving the democracy and secular-constitutional state principles. In Foreign Relations Turkey has to take this principles as basis,produce policies consistent with these policies and operate in order to adopt these policies globally and widespread them.For this purpose,Turkey should take place in Western community that has similar values,therefore should fulfill the necessities of EU membership goal.Turkey will be effective in international extent and have a specific role as long as she could keep democracy and secularism alive together. To sum up, today's Turkey has reached to the highest point af all the Republic history in means of strategic independence. The purpose
To what extent is Locke's argument concerning the state of nature and the social contract an attempt to justify private property?
Within this assignment I plan to highlight the extent to which John Locke managed to justify private property. I will do this by first explaining Locke's idea of the State of Nature and how there could be a need for private property rather than for common items to be shared, before then looking at how property could be appropriated from within such a state. I will then compare Locke's State of Nature with others' as well as other views on private property in order to reason Locke's justification opposed to other counter arguments. As well as private property relating to specific objects, such as food, I will look at ownership of one's self of which Locke argued is owned by one's self and how this then causes issues regarding slaves as property. I will then conclude how to such a huge extent Locke uses his writings to justify such private property after having looked at whether those that tacitly consent within a social contract, still have a right over private property, In 1690 Locke wrote "The Two Treatises of Government" which contained "An Essay Concerning the True Original Extent and End of Civil Government"1 Within this, Locke described his idea of the state of nature, as a "state of perfect freedom"2 and "state also of equality"3. This idea of a state of equality involved the fundamental law that we should not harm others' "life, health, liberty or possessions"4. This