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In this piece of coursework I will be looking at the role of motivation and its effects on sporting performance. Motivation means the driving force which makes us want to do something.

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Introduction

Introduction In this piece of coursework I will be looking at the role of motivation and its effects on sporting performance. Motivation means the driving force which makes us want to do something. Without motivation there is no reason for sports performers to want to learn new skills. Motivation has been defined as: "...the internal state which tends to direct a person's behaviour towards a goal" (Kent 1994) "...having two aspects: it is what drives us to do things ... and it makes us do particular things" (Woods 1998) "...the drive to strive" (Biddell 1984) Motivation has 5 components which are : Types of Motivation There are two types of motivation Extrinsic and Intrinsic. Extrinsic is affected by external factors such as money, trophies and rewards. An example is winning gold in the Olympics. Figure 1-an example of extrinsic motivation, Kelly Holmes winning gold at the 2004 Olympics Extrinsic motivation has been defined as: "The desire or push to perform a certain behaviour based on the potential external rewards that may be received as a result." (http://allpsych.com/dictionary/dictionary2.html) Intrinsic motivation is by internal factors such as enjoyment and beating our personal best. ...read more.

Middle

A good example is Wayne Rooney, he fractured his metatarsal bone in his right foot 6 weeks before the world cup, and doctors were saying that it is impossible for him to participate in the world cup because they estimated that he would need six weeks to heal and would not be fit to play. But Rooney was motivated to play in his first world cup so he trained hard so that he would be able to play and finally he played in the second round of the world cup against Ecuador and played the full 90 minutes. Figure 7 - shows Rooney in pain after a collision with Paulo Ferreira. If athletes are motivated they are most like to strive for the best training along with quantity. FITT embodies the basic principle of fitness training. How often, how hard, for how long and what type of training is appropriate. The acronym FITT stands for: Over training is a long period of intense training with poor and/or little recovery. If the performer over trains, they could suffer an increased resting heart rate, rapid unexplained weight loss, prolonged loss of appetite, excessive muscle fatigue or soreness and many others. ...read more.

Conclusion

The intensity of our motivation is called arousal. The link between arousal and performance can be explained by using two theories the drive theory and inverted u theory. The inverted u theory suggests that our best performances comes when we are moderately aroused, if our arousal level is low (under aroused) we may feel bored and this will lead to us performing badly, this mostly happens when upper league division play against lower division leagues. Activities that require performers to be under aroused are sports like darts, snooker and archery. However if our arousal level gets too high (over aroused) this creates tension which causes our performance to become less effective. Activities that require performers to be over aroused are sports like rugby and weight lifting. The drive theory suggests that arousal level and performance level is linear, therefore the higher the level of arousal the better the performance. However, this was adapted in terms of how well a dominant response is learnt, this would vary according to the ability of the performer novice/elite. Best performers are ones that can combine maximum levels of motivation with appropriate methods of training and natural physical ability. Our best performances are only possible when, with the help of our coach, we match our motivational level to our personality and achieve the right level of arousal. ...read more.

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