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GCSE: Physical Geography

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  1. The Yellowstone Supervolcano

    What are the Present Land Uses that an Eruption Might Affect? Many land uses essential to human (and indeed animal) life would be impossible throughout the world-but especially in America and Europe- if the Yellowstone supervolcano erupted. Many deaths would be caused mainly by ash; inhalation of ash would kill and sicken humans and animals, crush buildings (30cm is sufficient to collapse a roof), machinery-such as air filters- would be clogged, and crops and other vegetation would die.

    • Word count: 351
  2. Hydro-Electric Power

    The steep slopes and relatively warm weather lower down the mountains create powerful water flow from glacier melt and rainfall higher up in the mountains; this water flow keeps on going and there is therefore little need to transport the water back up to the top of the power plant as is necessary in some hydroelectric complexes.

    • Word count: 448
  3. Coral Ecosystems

    Secondly, as the sediment settles, it may bury the corals. This will cause them to spend large amounts of energy attempting to remove the sediment and keep their surfaces clean rather than using this energy for 'normal' processes such as growing and generally staying alive. - Coral reefs cannot be formed deeper than about twenty metres into the water because there is not enough sunlight. Inside the corals live a symbiotic algae called zooxanthellae; these are essential to the wellbeing of the coral. They provide the colour of the coral, and if concentration of the zooxanthellae becomes too low this will cause coral bleaching and the coral will die.

    • Word count: 914
  4. Why California is considered a hazard hotspot and how it copes

    The San Andreas Fault is a conservative boundary, which can give rise to powerful earthquakes. The 1906 San Francisco earthquake was caused by a rupture on the San Andreas Fault, which is a strike-slip fault meaning it is a crack between two plates sliding past each other. This 7.7 magnitude earthquake caused a lot of destruction in the San Francisco area, killing an estimated 3000 people and leaving an expensive bill of damage ($9.5 billion in 2009 dollars). Much of the damage and death toll came as a result of the devastating fires which followed the earthquake, which lasted for four days.

    • Word count: 643
  5. Geography Field Study River Investigation Coursework

    and secondly because it was conveniently within easy walking distance from the field centre. Were there any Signs of Human Impact? As can be seen in the two pictures above, some parts of the river, especially in the upper course, are very close to the road (within 10 meters at some points); this meant that the natural formation of the land surrounding the river had been altered, which could have been a cause of the off-neutral pH of the river water.

    • Word count: 1047
  6. Global Warming Essay Arguing the Side: Humans Are Not The Cause

    Global warming is not caused my humans and the potential environmentally harming activities that they participate in. Global warming is caused by natural effects and natural changes. No one quite knows the real cause of global warming, but without a doubt, humans do not produce it. Human beings definitely aren't the cause of global warming and there is a lot of evidence that can be used to support these claims. One major piece of evidence that proves that greenhouse gases (which are man made)

    • Word count: 551
  7. Montserrat volcano and its effects on the inhabitants.

    Not only was the country physically ruined but also Montserrat's economy was disturbed. Between 1996 and 2000 Montserrat's GDP had gone down by 36.9%. The catastrophic eruption had closed airports and seaports concluding to additional economic and social dislocation by stopping the trading of the country. The tourist industry had lost all their businesses as no more tourists were approaching to the island: the attractions were covered in ash and rocks. Furthermore the eruption has seriously damaged the reefs, and reduced fish density.

    • Word count: 1018
  8. The threat of flooding along the Thames Estuary is an issue of increasing importance.

    In order to build these homes deforestation had to have taken place. This reduces interception and increases surface run off. This leads to soil erosion. River channels fill with soil, the capacity of the river is reduced and flooding occurs. * 38 underground and docklands light stations are underground. This reduces through flow and ground water flow as the ground has been dug up and covered in impermeable rock. These underground buildings use up space where water could have been stored.

    • Word count: 1038
  9. Views on the Future of Montserrat. There were many primary impacts of the volcanic eruption that occurred on Montserrat in 1997. Large areas were covered with volcanic material;

    Montserrat's airport was declared closed; the island was accessible only by helicopter or boat. The eruption was explained to have many causes, which could all be agreed on. Montserrat is right above a destructive plate margin. A destructive plate margin is basically where two plates are moving towards each other. It is when an oceanic plate meets a continental plate; the denser oceanic plate is then forced down into the mantle. Then small Earthquakes occur due to friction. The denser plate melts in the subduction zone due to the friction and increase in temperature.

    • Word count: 1112
  10. The Medieval warm period and Little Ice Age

    When a volcano erupts, its ash reaches high into the atmosphere and can spread to cover the whole Earth. This ash cloud blocks out some of the incoming solar radiation, leading to worldwide cooling that can last up to two years after an eruption. Also emitted by eruptions is sulfur in the form of SO2 gas. When this gas reaches the stratosphere, it turns into sulfuric acid particles, which reflect the sun's rays, further reducing the amount of radiation reaching Earth's surface.

    • Word count: 415
  11. Why did so many people die in the Kobe earthquake?

    These houses were not earthquake proof, so people that lived in these were in great danger. However, houses that were built after 1981, have been made earthquake proof, this means that they are adapted to earthquakes, have the latest technology and hopefully would not fall down whist there is an earthquake. These houses would have been more recently built and made with stronger material. A familiar story is of the Endo family, who Mr & Mrs Endo lived the older residential part of Kobe called Nishinomiya; most people who lived here were old. Older people were in more danger of death because in the older suburbs of Kobe, many elderly people lived there and owned older houses, such as the Endo's house which was built before 1960.

    • Word count: 1169
  12. Kobe Earthquake - causes and effects

    This is an earthquake. The waves spread out from the point where the earthquake started - the focus. More damage is done near the focus. The point on the earth's surface directly above the focus is the epicentre. This is what happened to the city in Tokyo. The plate shifted causing an earthquake. Types of plate movement As I explained before, earthquakes are caused from the collision of plates thus creating shockwaves. The collision of plates is called plate movements and there different types of plate movement. The two types of plate movement is Convergent and divergent and there are different types of convergent and divergent plate movements.

    • Word count: 911
  13. Tectonic Plates and Volacanoes - Keywords and definitions.

    Composite Cone: Known as Stratovolcano, it is a tall, conical volcano built up by many layers (strata) of hardened lava, tephra, pumice, and volcanic ash. The lava that flows from stratovolcanoes typically cools and hardens before spreading far due to high viscosity. Ash: Powdery material thrown out by a volcano. Lava: Rock that in its molten form (as magma) issues from volcanoes; lava is what magma is called when it reaches the surface. Crater: A bowl-shaped depression at the mouth of a volcano or geyser. Convection Current: The specific pattern of the movement of a fluid due to differences in temperature and density in the fluid.

    • Word count: 649
  14. Physical Case Studies AQA Revision notes - Ice, rivers and volcanoes.

    Gas, steam and ash blasted out of the top and of the side of the volcano, causing a pyroclastic flow moving at 300km/h, killing 61 people. Then hot magma melted the snow and flowed down the mountain at 35 m/s. * SHORT TERM RESPONSES: The president visited the area, diggers cleared the ash off roads, snowploughs were used in Ritzville to clear ash, 2000 stranded people cared for in nearby schools and churches, helicopters used to locate casualties * LONG TERM RESPONSES: Logging was hard hit by the lateral blast, but there was enough logs recovered to build 85000 three

    • Word count: 2464
  15. The research I have carried out to test if the statement Stretches of a river can be very different in terms of their processes and landforms has proven to be correct for my study area which was Ty ny Berth which is in Snowd

    The Bradshaw model The Bradshaw Model is a model that basically describes the geography of rivers. It describes the river's characteristics and how they may vary between the upper course and lower course of a river. By looking above at the visual representation above, you can see that as you go downstream discharge, occupied channel width, channel depth, average velocity and load quantity increases. However it also states that as you go downstream load particle size, channel bed roughness and slope angle (gradient)

    • Word count: 2509
  16. Tropical Rainforests - adaptation of species. Explain why the rainforest is an important natural resource.

    Large buttes roots These are used to support the high trees. They also gather nutrients for the tree, this is because the soil in the rainforest doesn't have much nutrients. They also don't penetrate into the ground deeply. Lianas Lianas are climbing woody vines that drape rainforest trees. They have adapted to life in the rainforest by having their roots in the ground and climbing high into the tree canopy to reach available sunlight. Many lianas start life in the rainforest canopy and send roots down to the ground. Little undergrowth on the forest floor except in clearing/ river edges.

    • Word count: 1732
  17. The Kashmir earthquake of 2005

    Four deaths were reported in Afghanistan. The earthquake caused the mountains to rise by several meters. This proves conclusively that the Himalayas are rising. As Saturday is habitually a school day in Pakistan, many children were at their schools when the quake stuck and were buried under collapsed buildings. Hospitals and services such as armed forces and police were virtually immobilised as infrastructure collapsed and communication became virtually non-existent. It was the month of Ramadan when the quake struck, for which reason many were asleep and therefore had no time to escape buildings, which were poorly constructed and unable to resist the strong up thrust.

    • Word count: 537
  18. A Guide to Kenya

    The Kamega forest is located in the West of Kenya and is what remains of the Guineo Congolian rainforest. Including many protected areas, altogether the forest is 230 quare kilometers. The forest is home to many species of bird, reptile and insects. Due to this, it is an eco-tourism attraction for many people. It contains highland ecosystems, but most of the forest has not been comprehensively studied by scientists. Similar to rainforest climate, it is very wet and receives over 2 meters of rain annually. Lakes- Kenya is famous for Lake Victoria, the second largest fresh water lake in the world.

    • Word count: 867
  19. Coastal managment of Walton on the Naze

    - 1970's integrated approach The future With Reference to a coastal area you have studied, outline the management strategies and their benefits to people and the environment?

    • Word count: 56
  20. G lobal warming is the gradual increase in the temperature of the earth's atmosphere. The increase of temperature is due to the greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrous oxide and methane which trap heat and light from the sun in the

    When living organisms fail to adapt to the current temperature, they faces disposal. When trees are cut down or fossil fuels are burn, they release carbon dioxide into the air which increases the greenhouse effect. Mass deforestation1 in the world at an unprecedented 2rate worsens the problem. Even without the contribution of human activities, the earth has been experiencing climate change in the past. Now, the climate has become more serious due to the involvement of human activities. Global warming also is the current climb in the average temperature and is projected persistence. The scientific research shows that global warming is initiated by human activities such as regular melting of glaciers.

    • Word count: 595
  21. Hurricane Georges, I think that the main reason why more people died in the Caribbean than in the USA is because the Caribbean is made up of many islands and lies on the equator, where the conditions are ideal for hurricanes to form.

    I think the reason that the wind speed was faster in the Caribbean islands than in the USA is because the Caribbean is in the tropics, where the temperatures are warm and the Caribbean islands are near the sea providing a good condition for hurricanes to form. Hurricane Georges affected the costal states near the equator in the USA. The end of a hurricane is when it travels over cool land or cold water and its energy source (warm water)

    • Word count: 809
  22. Produce a report on climatic conditions and their effects on worldwide destinations for tourism..

    Its also a period or condition of unusually dry weather within a geographic area where rainfall is normally present. - Hurricanes - A hurricane occurs when a storm starts to brew over the ocean. As it makes contact with warm ocean waters - if the temperature of the water is above 26.5 degrees Celsius (80 Fahrenheit) - the storm's heat and energy intensify. Winds rotate counter clockwise around a calm centre (the "eye"). When the sustained speed of the winds reaches 74 mi (119 km) per hour, the storm is officially classified as a hurricane. - Flooding- A combination of storms, tides and low air pressure, Flooding is normally caused by natural weather events such as: heavy rainfall and thunderstorms, mainly over a short period rivers or oceans overflowing their banks.

    • Word count: 1131
  23. Geography river study coursework - Why do channel characteristics vary downstream at a number of sites along the Mulunguzi river?

    I would expect the channel to be larger because of the increased velocity causing more hydraulic power erosion. Location description The study will take place at the Mulunguzi river in Zomba. Zomba is a small town in which a plateau is located-it is on this plateau, at 15? south and 34? east, where the source of the river Mulunguzi is found. The river is perfect to carry out this investigation as it enables us to examine a number of its features including: meanders, waterfalls, rapids, tributaries and so on.

    • Word count: 1436
  24. Research into the problem of flooding in the town of Santa Fe in Argentina.

    This length increases to 3,998 km (2,484 miles) if the distance is counted from the headwaters of the Paranaiba River in Brazil. It is considered second in size only to the Amazon River among South American Rivers. The Paran´┐Ż River is formed at the confluence of the Paranaiba and Grande rivers in southern Brazil. From the confluence the river flows in a generally south-western direction for about 619 km (385 miles) before encountering the city of Saltos del Guaira, Paraguay.

    • Word count: 2177
  25. Tar Sands in Alberta

    Today in Alberta, one billion barrels of petroleum are being produced a day. In the next ten years, almost three billion barrels will be produced, 100, 000 new jobs1 will be created, as well as billions of dollars in taxes paid to the government. According to a University of Calgary historian, "The oil sands give Canada one of the single greatest advantages of any state in the Western world; it gives Canada the ability to supply all of North America for the next 50 years without touching a drop of imported oil."1 In other words, this historian is saying that any other country would want the tar sands to help support their nation and grow their economy.

    • Word count: 924

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