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# International Baccalaureate: Biology

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1. ## Biology report:water potential

However, an isotonic solution inclines that solute concentrations, and, thereby water potentials are the same inside the cell and in its surrounding. Research question The goal of the research was to determine the specimen with a greater water potential, in this case, the tissues analyzed were of apple and potato. Hypothesis The water potential of apple tissue will by far surpass the water potantial of potato. Explanation of the hypothesis Since it is known that fruits generally contain no starch, only fructose and glucose which together form a disaccharide called sucrose (2.07g of sucrose per 100g of tissue)

• Word count: 1261
2. ## Bacteria and Cleanliness. Question: Among the insides of a toilet, dishcloth, sink, and a refrigerator handle, what is the cleanest?

Question: Among the insides of a toilet, dishcloth, sink, and a refrigerator handle, what is the cleanest? Hypothesis: The sink will be the cleanest. Controls: Positive-the bacteria in a Petri dish when I spit in it Negative-the bacteria in a Petri dish without swabbing anything in it Variables: Independent-the places where I will be retrieving the bacteria: refrigerator handle, inside of a toilet, dishcloth, and the sink Dependent-the amount of bacteria in a Petri dish Extraneous Factors: Extraneous factors will be handled by making sure all the bacteria collected is done in the same day at the same time, so the temperature and lighting conditions will be the same for all 14 Petri dishes.

• Word count: 1911
3. ## Measuring the dependence between blood pressure and time

- The pressure is always measured on the left arm Temperature �C All the measurements were taken in a room with stable temperature � 20 �C Kind of the activity - Every person was having approximately the same activities throughout the whole experiment Time intervals between the measurements h A person is measured every 4 hours from the time of the beginning of the experiment Air pressure hPa It was approximately the same due to the same time of taking most measurements Materials: * Sphygmomanometer * Stethoscope * Clock * Pen and piece of paper Procedure: 1.

• Word count: 1413
4. ## Study of the strength of a muscle during different types of work

The values obtained at the end of the exercise were then compared. Results: Table1 shows the result of experiment 1 " Intermittent work ". The strength of the muscles of three group members measured by the dynamometer every ten seconds during a time period of one minute Time/seconds (�1) Results of the group member 1 in Kg (�0.5) Results of group member 2 in Kg (�0.5) Results of group member 3 in kg(�0.5) Trial 1 Trial 2 Mean value of the two trails. Trial 1 Trial 2 Mean of the two trials Trial 1 Trial 2 Mean of the two trials.

• Word count: 1443
5. ## The Carbon Cycle and Greenhouse Effect

Methane is able to trap heat inside the atmosphere far better than carbon. In the end, the temperature will rise as the excessive heat stay inside the Earth atmosphere. 2. Graph 1.3 Graph 1.4 Graph 1.5 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 1. A) The graph was in an increasing manner. For the first 60 years, 1850 to 1910, the rate of increasing was not very steep. The changes are only in the amount of 2 decimal places. However, the changes took a dramatic turn when the year of 1911 begins. The gradient was constant and quite steep over the period of the next 40 years.

• Word count: 1183
6. ## Population Ecology - Dandelions

Independent - The initial positioning of the quadrat from the base line (first quadrat) in the field. Dependant - The number of dandelion plants in each quadrat. Hypothesis As quadrats move away from the base line, i.e. towards the fence widthwise, and away from the portables lengthwise, the dandelion plant population will increase. Materials - 1 Hula-hoop (90 cm in diameter) - Ruler - Meter stick Method - Place the quadrat along the line transect specified by the instructor, initially at the base line. Align the quadrat with the flags placed at each corner of the habitat section being studied. - Count and record the amount of dandelion plants (hubs) present in the quadrat.

• Word count: 1341
7. ## Importance of Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis greatly affects the nature in our beautiful ecosystem and also affects many other aspects of the world. Even though photosynthesis is the process by which plants make food, other creatures also gain food due to photosynthesis. In the food chain, the herbivores only eat plants. These plants are in nature due to photosynthesis, as they live on their food. The herbivores are then eaten by the carnivores, and as we humans are omnivores, we eat both plants and meat.

• Word count: 1418
8. ## Photosynthesis Lab

* The time that the test tubes are kept under the light - (I am going to control this by keeping the test tubes under the light for 8 days) * The length of the Elodea plant - (I am going to control this by using a ruler to measure out 11.3 cm of the Elodea plant for each trial) Apparatus: * 15 test tubes (15ml each) * Ruler * Scissors * Water * 5 beakers (250ml) * Elodea plant (15 pieces of 11.3cm each)

• Word count: 1348
9. ## Pill Bug lab. Question- What type of environment attracts the most amounts of pill bugs?

Their natural habitat is under rocks, with soil and leaves. Variables- Manipulated Variable= Environment Responding Variable= Amount of pill bugs Controlled Variable= amount of environment ( 25 ml), amount of pill bugs (15), choice plate, temperature, and time of trials. Controlling Variables- The first variable that needed to be controlled was the amount of environment in each section of the choice plate, ultimately creating a necessity to make the choice plate a controlled variable. To control the environment, specific measurements of each type was used in the certain place of the choice plate. Next the amount of pill bugs as controlled by using the same 15 pill bugs each time.

• Word count: 1133
10. ## Body Temperature Experiment

List of Materials: 1. 2 graduated 400ml beaker 2. 1 graduated 200ml beaker 3. 1 graduated 125ml beaker 4. 1500ml of water 5. 3 thermometers 6. 1 stopwatch 7. Measuring Cylinder 8. Calculator 9. Bunsen Burner 10. Tripod 11. Wire Gauze 12. 2 pairs of tongs Procedure 1. Take three beakers, one 400ml, one 200ml and one 125ml beaker. 2. Place the Bunsen Burner under a tripod which has a wire gauze on top of it and light the Bunsen Burner. 3. Fill the other 400ml beaker with 300ml of water and place it upon the wire gauze.

• Word count: 1580
11. ## Drosophila Lab: Eye Color

Variables: Independent Variable: Phenotype and Genotype for the Eye Color of Drosophila parents (wild type red vs. white) Dependent Variable: Phenotype and Genotype for Eye Color of Drosophila offspring Constants: Other Phenotypes and Genotypes including: body type, bristles, antennae, eye shape, wing size, wing shape, wing vein, and wing angle; room temperature; temperature of the incubator; duration of incubation. Method (Procedure): Materials: Male White-eyed Drosophila (fruit fly), Female wild-type red-eyed Drosophila (fruit fly), Beakers(6), Incubator, Cork stopper (6), Microscope, Sorting Brush, Slide, Ether, Calendar, Computer Procedure: 1. Obtain a vial of wild- type flies. Practice immobilizing and sexing these flies.

• Word count: 1743
12. ## Digestion Lab discussion

For test tube 1, one scoop of pancreatin powder was added, a few drops of distilled water was added to test tube 2 and both were placed in a 37-40�C incubator for 45 minutes. The conditions for the absorption in the small intestine included the equal addition of starch solution and glucose solution to the dialysis tubing in which it was submerged in distilled water. Then 20 drops of Benedict's solution was added to the vial in which it was then placed in boiling water.

• Word count: 1211
13. ## Biology Internal Assessment Peas Lab

7.) Once you have seen a temperature change in both flasks, open the flasks and observe their contents. Observe and notice if either of the flasks have peas that have sprouted and if either of the flasks have peas that have begun to decompose (ferment). Results Temperature (+/- 0,5 �C) Days Morning 8:10 Evening 4:10 Boiled Peas Not-boiled Peas Boiled Peas Not-boiled Peas Week-1 Monday 25,0 25,0 Tuesday 24,0 25,5 24,0 26,0 Wednesday 24,0 25,5 24,5 26,0 Thursday 26,0 26,0 25,5 26,0 Friday 24,0 26,0 24,5 26,0 Saturday - - 24,0 26,0 Sunday 23,0 24,0 - - Data Processing After gathering all of my data together, I divided them in 2 different sections.

• Word count: 1221
14. ## Biology Internal Assessment Soil pH

5.) Collect the soil that is 5 meters away from water. In order to collect dry soil: 1.) Collect the soil that is 11 meters away from water. 2.) Collect the soil that is 12 meters away from water. 3.) Collect the soil that is 13 meters away from water. 4.) Collect the soil that is 14 meters away from water. 5.) Collect the soil that is 15 meters away from water. Method 1.) Collect all the apparatus listed above. 2.) Locate a relatively dry spot (>10m) and a spot close to water (<5m) using a meter stick for both cases.

• Word count: 1355
15. ## Aim: To investigate whether the temperature effects the production of yeast and hydrogen peroxide by measuring the oxygen gas given off for each temperature.

These variables are: Control variables: - 10ml of hydrogen peroxide - 1ml of yeast solution - Same length of time recorded for each experiment for 1 minute each to measure the bubbles produced - Temperature needs to be maintained at given temperatures Methods of keeping the control variables controlled: I will use a water bath to help maintain the desired temperature of hydrogen peroxide. If the thermometer indicates the temperature is decreasing, then I will add more hot water to the water bath in order to sustain the temperature.

• Word count: 1452
16. ## Effect of Temperature on Membranes

tube (6ml), number of discs on each needle (6 discs), time which needles are placed in water bath (1 min), time with samples are left in test tubes after being heated (20 min) Raw Data of Absorbancy Temperature ( ) Sample blank control Readings Actual Readings Average Standard Deviation Standard Error Order of redness (1 being the lightest) 30 a 0.922 -0.616 0.306 0.352 0.0657 0.0465 1 almost colourless b 0.078 0.321 0.399 40 a -0.914 1.349 0.435 0.433 0.0028 0.0020 2 b -0.012 0.443 0.431 50 a 0.006 0.481 0.487 0.471 0.0226 0.0160 3 faint pink b 0.009 0.446

• Word count: 1014
17. ## G4 planning lab

Background Knowledge: The Brick Kiln where the study was conducted was an intermittent brick kiln. In intermittent kilns, bricks are fired in batches. Generally, bricks and fuel are stacked in layers and the entire batch is fired at once, the fire is allowed to die down and the bricks allowed to cool after they have been fired. The kiln must be emptied, refilled and a new fire started for each load of bricks. In intermittent kilns, most of the heat contained in the hot flue gases, in the fired bricks and in the kiln structure is thus lost.

• Word count: 1191
18. ## Environment science lab soil planning lab

And thus the Soil at 3 metre from road will be having the highest content of water and thus it can be said that the soil in different areas of road at a certain distance will have different soil texture, ph and water content. The pH of the soil will be basic because some vegetation was seen. Variables: 1) Controlled Variables: Time of collection of samples Method of collecting samples 2) Independent variables: Distance from the road 3) Dependent: Amount of pH, soil texture and the water content in each soil present.

• Word count: 1872
19. ## Cells - revision notes. All living things are made up of cells which have an outer boundary, nucleus, cytoplasm and organelles.

The main functions of such cells are: 1. Response to change in environment 2. Homeostasis: maintenance and regulation of the internal environment 3. Metabolism: respiration, synthesis of ATP 4. Growth: increase in cell size and volume 5. Reproduction: asexual methods 6. Nutrition: synthesis of organic molecules, absorption of organic matter MULTI-CELLULAR ORGANISMS 1. Differentiation/Specialization- It is the process by which cells within a multi-cellular organism specialize in their functions. It takes place due to the switching off of genes in particular groups of cells. As a result, cells modify themselves to have specific shapes, functions and adaptations.

• Word count: 1581
20. ## Why do we classify

When classifying the tree, one starts with the Kingdom Plantae and goes to the species rubrum. In non-biological classification, inanimate and nonliving things are classified; and it is very arbitrary. Two examples are furniture and shoes. One can start classifying furniture by its shape, size, or even purpose; and shoes can be first sorted by color, material, or size. So through classification, biologists and even everyday people are able to group things together to find similarities. Taxonomy is the science of naming and classifying organisms.

• Word count: 1155
21. ## Methods of estimating population sizes.

/2 Area A= 98 x 79 --> 7742 cm2 Area B= (130-80) x 70= 50 x 70 --> 3500 cm2 Area C= (98-70)x (130-80)= 28 x 50 --> 1400 cm2 Area A + Area B + Area C= Total Area 7742 cm2 +3500 cm2 +1400 cm2 = 12642 cm2 or 1.26 m2 Number of random throws Number of crosses in the quadrat 1 3 2 6 3 4 4 3 5 4 6 3 7 4 8 4 9 2 10 4 11 4 12 4 13 4 14 3 15 5 16 5 17 4 18 5 19 6 20 3 In order to randomly throw our quadrat in area we decided to turn around at an initial point.

• Word count: 1672
22. ## Enzyme activity using the enzyme catalase in different plant sources

catalase 2H2O (l) + O2 (g) The enzyme catalase can be found mostly in liver cells and in potato and many other plant foods. AIM: To investigate the oxygen collected in hydrogen peroxide using different sources of plant food samples. Research question Investigating how will the height of foam (showing oxygen collected) differentiate the activity of the enzyme catalase using different plant sources (potato, apple, onion, beetroot, carrot) at optimum temperature (37oC) in a period of 20 minutes? Variables How will it be control Temperature (type: controlled variable)

• Word count: 1657
23. ## Seed Germination Experiment. How would different levels of temperature of water affect the rate of seed germination?

each paper towel - Room temperature - Air pressure - Equipments used - The amount of water used for each dish Procedures: 1. Take 3 pieces of paper towel and evenly rip each paper towel in half so that, at the end, you obtain 6 pieces of paper towel in total. 2. Obtain 60 dry seeds of the same type (for this lab, long beans seeds were used) and place 10 seeds in each of the 6 paper towels. 3. After placing the seeds in the paper towel, fold the paper towel in thirds, so that the seeds are hidden.

• Word count: 1338
24. ## Vitamin C concentration

> Controlled 1) Concentration of DCPIP- the solution of DCPIP was prepared in larger amounts and the same sample was used in each trial. No changes were made to the content of the solution. 2) Volume of DCPIP used- in each trial one constant volume of DCPIP was used so as to obtain reasonable final values. The established volume of DCPIP was 1 cm3 and it was controlled by using the same pipette (1cm3 �0.05) to measure needed volume of DCPIP.

• Word count: 1314
25. ## Research Question:- How does the time of boiling effect the amount of vitamin C in food

Fresh 1st 29.1 2nd 27.0 Boiled for 10 minutes 1st 39.3 2nd 36.5 Boiled for 60 minutes 1st 42.0 2nd 48.0 Table 1 shows data collected during the experiment Qualitative data:- > The colour of glacial acetic acid is colourless > The colour of DCPIP solution is dark blue > Colour of fresh citrus fruit is light yellow, 10 minutes boiled has yellow colour and 60 minutes boiled citrus fruit has dark yellow colour. > Upon mixing, the colour of DCPIP solution turns from blue to purple colour.

• Word count: 1129