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International Baccalaureate: Biology

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  1. How does the salinity of water affect the germination of mung been seeds as measured by the number of seeds that successfully germinate?

    * When placing the seeds in the petri dish their distribution was unequal. * The filter paper did not fit the petri dish perfectly causing some bubbles to form. * The thickness of the cotton wool was uneven * 4 days after exposure to the solution the seeds gave of an unpleasant odour. * The testa of the seed had began to crack when we checked our seeds on day 4. * On the 10th day there was mould present in the 0.0 petri dishes Processed Data Table 1 showing the effect changing the salinity of water added to ten ungerminated Vigna radiate (mung bean)

    • Word count: 2947
  2. Biology Internal Assessment - investigate whether the Window and Notching caterpillar share the same ecological niche.

    * Sometimes notches didn?t go to the very end of leaves. * Windows were very long and didn?t go completely through the leaf. * The cabbage tree leaves taper off significantly. * The midrib is difficult to see. * There were some yellow spots on the leaves. Processed Data Table showing the mean distance from the midrib of the cabbage tree leaf to the nearest point of the feeding site (mm) of 50 samples from notched and window shaped feeding sites on cabbage tree leaves and the standard deviation.

    • Word count: 2843
  3. An investigation on the changes in tidal volume and vital capacity of lungs before and after short-term exercise.

    Uncontrolled variables: The speed at which the participants bike at on the spinning bike. The weight of the participants. Amount of exercise participants have done prior to experiment The height of the participants. The gender of the participants. Apparatus Consent form[1] Spirometer (cubic centimeter, /cm3) Stopwatch (seconds 10 disposable mouthpieces Spinning bike 10 participants were chosen to take part in the experiment (age 18-19). Method 1. Hand out consent form and ask participant to sign. 2. Put mouthpiece into hose opening of the spirometer. 3. Make sure the indicator of the spirometer is set on 0 by adjusting the indicator.

    • Word count: 2101
  4. Testing the effect of substrate concentration on enzymes

    This type of reaction where a molecule is broken down into smaller pieces is called an anabolic reaction. RESEARCH QUESTION What will be the effect of increasing the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide on the rate of activity of the enzyme liver catalase reacting with it in a given period of time? HYPOTHESIS If all other factors such as temperature and pH are kept constant, increasing the substrate concentration will increase the activity of the enzyme to a point where it will reaches a maximum and remains constant because at its maximum rate the active sites of all the enzyme molecules in solution are occupied by a substrate molecule.

    • Word count: 2787
  5. Biotechnology Assignment: Genetic Screening/Testing

    2. Pre-symptomatic testing: For predicting or estimating risks of developing certain diseases such as Huntington?s or Alzheimer?s, 3. Conformational diagnosis of a symptomatic individual 4. Forensic/identity testing: To identify specific diseases from the trace evidence they leave 1. Diagnostic Testing: Diagnostic testing is used to diagnose or rule out a specific genetic or chromosomal condition. In many cases, genetic testing is used to confirm a diagnosis when a particular condition is suspected based on physical mutations and symptoms. Diagnostic testing can be performed at any time during a person's life, but is not available for all genes or all genetic conditions.

    • Word count: 2927
  6. Beet Lab. Aim: To determine the effects of temperature on the permeability of the beetroot cell membrane.

    Any damage to the cell membrane will cause the cytoplasm to leak out of the cell. Energy for the movement of molecules comes from the kinetic energy of molecules. Cell membranes are composed of phospholipids and proteins, which contribute to the selectively permeable nature of the membrane. Small, uncharged molecules can diffuse across the membrane, while certain other substances must be transported across the membrane by proteins. Since the membrane is impervious to some substances except through channel proteins, important solutes can be retained. Beet cells, which are plant cells, contain a water-soluble pigment called betacyanin that is stored in the vacuole.

    • Word count: 2234
  7. Finding the isotonic point for potato tissue

    3.01 + 0.05 2.97 3.03 + 0.06 2.90 3.04 + 0.14 2.91 2.98 + 0.07 2.80 2.86 + 0.06 2.87 2.96 + 0.09 + 1.69 + 2.02 + 4.83 + 2.41 + 2.14 + 3.14 + 2.70 1.04 0.4 2.90 2.84 -0.06 2.87 2.83 -0.04 2.76 2.73 -0.03 2.84 2.77 -0.07 2.83 2.79 -0.04 2.90 2.81 -0.09 - 2.07 -1.39 -1.09 -2.46 -1.41 -3.10 -1.92 0.69 0.6 2.97 2.81 -0.16 2.98 2.74 -0.24 2.99 2.78 -0.21 2.91 2.80 -0.11 2.97 2.79 -0.18 3.00 2.77 -0.23 -5.39 -8.05 -7.02 -3.78 -6.06 -7.67 -6.33 1.45 0.8 2.81 2.61 -0.20 2.88 2.63 -0.25

    • Word count: 2604
  8. Investigation of osmosis in potato strips by measuring the length of the strips after a incubation in various sucrose concentrations

    If there is a difference between two different solution concentration. The one with highest solute concentration is hypertonic in relation to the one with lowest solute concentration. The solution with the lowest solute concentration solute is hypotonic to the one with high solute concentration (hypo means under or less than). These words can only be used to compare solutions. Considering that two solutions are separated by a selectively permeable membrane. The solution that is hypertonic to the other has higher solute concentration and therefore the water concentration is lowered compared to a hypotonic solution where the solute concentration is lower and the water concentration is higher.

    • Word count: 2642
  9. How will changing the percentage of glucose concentration affect the light transmission percentage from the release of betacyanin caused by the permeability of cell membranes of beetroot cells?

    Hypothesis I predict that as the concentration of glucose increases, the solution will become darker in colour thus the light transmission percentage will decrease. This is due to the water potential of the surrounding glucose solution being lower than the water potential inside the beetroot cell causing water to exit the cell through osmosis. As the cell becomes flaccid for a long period of time, it will start to wilt. This causes the cell membrane to tear away from the cell wall and the permeability to increase so the red pigment betacyanin would be realeased.

    • Word count: 2072
  10. Comparing the effect of different antimicrobials on the growth of E.coli

    It is effective against Hemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and many others. Tetracycline prevents growth of bacteria by preventing the bacteria to manufacture proteins that they need to survive.?[7] Research question Does a higher concentration of an antimicrobial have a stronger inhibiting effect on Escherichia coli? Which of the antimicrobials has the strongest inhibiting effect on the growth of the bacterial culture of Escherichia coli?

    • Word count: 2736
  11. Investigating the effects of plant density on growth rate

    Once the seed has germinated, the roots will start to grow towards the soil and the sprout will grow upwards. As the first tiny leaves appear, photosynthesis is started. In the next stage of growth the plants start to compete for water and nutrients in the soil and also for sunlight and carbon dioxide above. Seeds that are planted too close to one another are known to grow taller initially to compete for sunlight (Dictionary.com 2012, Etiolation). However this growth will not last long because as they grow bigger, the plants will have to compete for other resources in the soil like space for roots, water and nutrients (Wikipedia 2012, Factors Affecting Growth).

    • Word count: 2132
  12. How does cooking affect the amount of vitamin C in lemon juice?

    The volume of glacial acetic acid used. 4 cm3 of glacial acetic acid used for dilution in all types of lemon juice. 4. Type of fruit used to prepare juice sample. Juices are extracted from lemon fruits for every trial. This is because different fruits contain different concentration of vitamin C, thus using variety of fruits will greatly affect the reliability of the data. Apparatus & Materials / Procedures Refer to the handouts. DATA COLLECTION AND PROCESSING 1. Data Collection 1.

    • Word count: 2693
  13. Effect of Detergent on Membrane Permeability

    Question: What is the effect of detergent on organic membrane? Aim: To be able to use the colorimeter to measure the amount of absorbance and transmittance of the betalaine pigment in the beetroot and find out the effect of different concentration of detergent on the cell. Hypothesis: Null Hypothesis: 1. If the percent increment of detergent increases when applied on the beetroot, the light absorption rate from the colorimeter will remain the same because there is no relationship between the concentration of detergent to the absorption rate Alternative Hypothesis: 1.

    • Word count: 2436
  14. Experiment-Effect of Temperature on the Action of Amylase Enzyme

    Thus, the rate of reaction of amylase correlates to the absolute value of the rate of change in absorbance of the solution. A rapid decrease in the absorbance of the blue-black color equates to a high rate of reaction of amylase, whereas a slow decrease in absorbance signifies a low rate of reaction. In this experiment, an external variable of temperature will be manipulated into the amylase enzyme to determine the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction of amylase enzyme.

    • Word count: 2152

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