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International Baccalaureate: Biology
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* There are 3 types: 1)Ionic bond: metal + non- metal (ex: NaCl, BeF2) and 2)Covalent bond: non-metal + non-metal (ex: O2, H2, N2) and 3)and 3)Polar Covalent bond: between 2 non-metals/metals, electrons are not shared equally.(ex: HCl) 1)London Forces ?Weakest, between atoms and molecules, Formed temporary by uneven number of electrons 2)Dipole-Dipole Forces ?between polar molecules ? positive end of one molecule attracts negative end of another molecule --Stronger than London forces 3)Hydrogen Bonds ?Strongest force ? between N, O or F of one molecule AND H of another.
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Although this method speeds the outcomes but is often misguided as it results in creating species that are not genetically diverse and incapable of adapting whenever there was any change in its environment. https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/FfAyVb31AH75JDOsznD5vlkCz27BO1jaFManXNRVpEHuwaWy4k--J-hX7mo9WaqTCggt8zvsubo6BZsIQec_Y_h9FmQKfjO6k4qa-aqeuxoj1uDJLpvzLK3RXrdP4TMh2pywZMZaklzup5j0Iw However, Scientists took other innovative approaches to fix the damage and revive extinct animals through gene-editing techniques. With the genetic engineering technology CRISPR-Cas9, researchers have discovered a way to reconstruct and edit DNA and restore the earth's natural restoration and function. CRISPR or (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)
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Effect of Incandescent, Fluorescent and LED lights at 900 lumens on the concentration of vitamin C content in oranges and their effectiveness on metabolic efficiency
Incandescent generate light by use of filaments and when power is applied, the filament glows generating heat and therefore light. Due to incandescent bulbs hot filament, they produce a continuous spectrum as all wavelengths of lights are present (Fielder 1). On the other hand, led produces lights through a cold process as it is stimulated by electron movement, hence creating photons, therefore, visible light and its wavelength is the only thing emitted by led bulbs (Lighting Division 1). Fluorescent lighting uses electricity to excite mercury gas and in the process emits ultraviolet light (Nave).
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The Heritage Bill 2016 will also Acts amend and extend the Wildlife Act 1976 and outline the powers issued to the authorized bodies under the Act. Provisions will also be made in the Bill to amend the Canals Act 1986 (Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht, 2016). The Bill comes as a manifestation of the Irish Government?s poor record in listening to the cohorts of people who value our natural heritage. This is evident in the lack of scientific rationale to support these changes (birdwatchireland, 2017).
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River Thame Investigation How does the distribution of mayfly larvae depend upon the rate of flow of the river
Variables: Independent ? speed of the stream Dependent ? number of mayfly larvae Controlled ? number of times data collected at each site, how the samples are collected ? kick sample and speed probe, transect across the stream at three places, data collected on the same day ? similar weather conditions. Method Materials: Speed probe from field centre, macro invertebrate net, Wellington boots, meter ruler, string, temperature probe The stream was sampled at the place it enters the field centre, where there is a meander and as it leaves the field centre ? just after a weir.
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Plagues are clusters of protein fragments called beta-amyloid that are built up between the nerve cells. Tangles are made up of twisted strands of protein called tau. http://thebrain.mcgill.ca/flash/d/d_08/d_08_m/d_08_m_alz/d_08_m_alz_1a.jpg Beta-amyloid is a fragment of a protein found in the neuron?s cell membrane called amyloid precursor protein (APP). APP is a transmembrane protein, which means the APP molecule passes through the cell membrane of neuron. In order for beta-amyloid to be released from the APP molecule, two enzymes must be involved which are beta-secretase and gamma-secretase. http://thebrain.mcgill.ca/flash/d/d_08/d_08_m/d_08_m_alz/d_08_m_alz_1b.jpg First, beta-secretase cut the peptide chain of APP outside the cell membrane at a certain length.
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To diagnose whether a patient has a disease, the doctor will take some blood in order to look for abnormal amounts of specific enzymes in the blood and then measure the plasma levels of the enzyme. Below is an image illustrating this. (Figure 1 taken from ?Clinical Enzymology?) Higher levels intracellular enzymes indicate cell damage as enzymes are meant to be inside the cells. If you find them in the plasma that means the cell walls have been damaged. Although if someone has low levels, it could also simply be because of genetics or due to the fact that it is natural change with age.
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The pathogen avoidance model states that females select for males with secondary sex traits in order to distinguish between the diseased and the healthy males in order to stay safe from pathogens. Both theories are widely used to explain many evolutionary trends, but are they mutually exclusive? It is possible that both theories are correct in certain scenarios. However, one must look into the mechanisms of both in order to find out. Overview of Sexy Sons Hypothesis The sexy son hypothesis which was popularized by Ronald Fisher is currently stated as a possible explanation for the great diversity of ornamental traits in animals.
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