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International Baccalaureate: Geography

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  1. Colorado Case Study

    In 2004 Colorado made the list of "America's Most Endangered Rivers of 2004." Demonstrating the dangers, which loom one of Americas most used river. One of the main factors contributing to the endangerment of the river is pollution. There are three ways in which the river is being polluted first via contaminated groundwater, human waste from riverfront boomtowns in California and Arizona contaminating the river below the Hoover Dam. Pollution is seeping into the Colorado River and this affects the health of the river. As a result of the overloading population, which surrounds the river, increases the septic system to seep into ground water and the Colorado River.

    • Word count: 1397
  2. Field Work Report

    However, in one of the wealthier shopping areas, Agdal, is designed to attracted the wealthier side of the population. Agdal is densely populated area surrounded by apartment buildings. Most of the shops are located on the bottom floor of the apartment buildings. The streets that were mainly surveyed were Avenue Al Fal Ould Oumair, Avenue Al Abtal, Oued Melouya, Rue Oum Arrabia, and Rue Oued Baht. Also photographed was Kays Centre Commercial, the local shopping center. Observing these area gives a clear and precise conclusion that will support the thesis. III. In order to attain information about the local shops and the products sold in these shops, which correlates with the hypothesis, one has to take a tour of the area.

    • Word count: 1451
  3. Population Density Comparism

    This has also attracted both tourist and many people from rural areas. So the increase in population adds to the increase of population density in that area. In Jalandhar we see that as it's a rural district the population stays low therefore this plays one major role in leading to the low population density. Another point that I feel is correlated is that the people per household is proportionate to the number of population. This is because as the area of the district is limited when there is an increase in the population the average space per person will decrease, this will lead to a rise in the people per household and therefore cause a higher population density.

    • Word count: 1109
  4. HIV/AIDs in the UK

    The fact that there are so many people in the United Kingdom living with the virus has put a great strain on the NHS (National Health Service) in the UK. Although people see an MEDC such as The United Kingdom being able to cope well with a disease such as this, the truth is that it is extremely difficult - however, this is for different reasons than in an LEDC. One of the main problems is that people do not like to come forward for testing.

    • Word count: 1169
  5. Impacts of AIDS

    Since the beginning of the epidemic, the number of heterosexual infections has increased dramatically. According to CDC estimates, heterosexual contact led to about one third of new AIDS diagnoses and one third of new HIV diagnoses in 2005.Around 19% of all adults and adolescents diagnosed with AIDS have been female. Among new AIDS diagnoses in 2005, this proportion was 27%. In Argentina the HIV hasn't already spread as in Africa or Europe. In 2005 there where 4300 deaths due to AIDS, but there are no children (ages 0-15)

    • Word count: 1796
  6. Fieldwork Urban Heat Islands

    It is estimated that only 3% of the territory are covered by vegetation. "Parque da Luz" was chosen because its location provides us a great example of urban heat island in S�o Paulo. We can see through the map 1 (page 3), that this park is located in the middle of S�o Paulo's CBD. As UHI can be diminished by reforestation, we can analyze if "Parque da Luz" is helping to diminish the urban heat island in S�o Paulo's CBD.

    • Word count: 1606
  7. Mount Aso Essay

    Geologists have been able to determine what the internal structure of the earth looks like by studying wavelengths. When an earthquake occurs three different types of waves are formed, pressure, transverse and surface waves. These waves travel through solid and dense material very quickly. Observing the velocity of these waves result or determine the state of matter of the material, which they travel through. The study of these waves show that they reach a very high velocity at the most northern part of the earth where the crust and outer most part of the mantle is very solid and dense but further south towards the equator the waves slow down drastically and stop because they have reached the earth's core.

    • Word count: 1425
  8. Geography - Tropical Rainforest Biome

    Orangutans move in specialized hand-over-hand motions called brachiation, and utilizes their body weight for movement within the upper levels of the rainforest. Furthermore, orangutans are recognizes as the most intelligent mammals next to humans, evidenced by their creation of feeding tools as well as construction of nests from branches and leaves each night, and construction of umbrellas from leaves. Additionally, the orangutan's throat sac enables it to perform the "long call", a mating call as well as a locational call.

    • Word count: 1723
  9. "One of the major problems facing the world in this the 21st century will not be overpopulation but over consumption" How far do you agree with this statement?

    However the issue of over consumption is mostly related to developed nations. However some developing nations pose a serious threat to the world's resources as they become more and more developed. This is of course China. Development One of the major pessimists to date is Lester Brown, who talks about the problems China will create when it comes out of poverty. The fact that almost all pessimists put forward is that all developing nations want to become like developed nations. The people of developing nations want to earn as much money as the developed nations.

    • Word count: 1654
  10. Clean Energy Production in the UAE Essay

    The situation is frightening but real which is harmful to the environment. We all know that we rely on these fossil fuels how will the UAE function without crude oil? Inside the UAE there is controversy in wither renewable energy is proficient or not. This question has raised based on the economy and the government?s opinion, we must step forward to implement and use renewable energy rather then common fossil fuels. Replacing the fossil fuels is beneficial to the environmental problems.

    • Word count: 1208
  11. Analysis of the Progress made towards the Millennium Development Goals.

    This would represent a near success in the objectives, exceeding by 40 million people (2.222% more than required). This number may therefore not be an extremely significant amount in percentages but, differently, is a major quantity of humans suffering poor economical conditions. Because this indicator considers the poverty limit at 1.25$, instead of 1$ as the MDG goal describes, the excessive 40 million people could be most probably due to the additional 0.25$. This major improvement was forecasted despite the economical breakdown of 2008/09.

    • Word count: 1482
  12. Describe and evaluate water management strategies (excluding those directed at flood control).

    As well, the Aswan Dam is used to regulate the fall of the Nile up ? and downstream, having a better outcome on the navigation of Lake Nasser and on tourism, as the dam became an important tourist attraction of Egypt. In addition, the dam enables water transfer to other rivers, which then can be used for municipal, agricultural and industrial purposes and enables more job possibilities. Although the Aswan dam has a very positive outcome on water management, it has its limitations as well, since about 100,000 indigenous Egyptians were forced to move, as the area was needed to build the dam.

    • Word count: 1204
  13. Examine the global patterns and trends in the production and consumption of oil and discuss its geopolitical and environmental impacts.

    Today, we consume about 87,000 thousand barrels per day. Figure 2 shows the oil production and consumption by country. Figure 1: Global Oil Production and Consumption by Year Figure 2: Gobal Oil Production (left) and Consumption (right) by year Overall, the production and consumption of oil has steadily increased because as countries develop and industrialize, their oil consumption grows with their economy. Today, China?s and India?s economies have been growing very rapidly, and the impact on oil demand has already begun.

    • Word count: 1063
  14. Describe the variations in trade blocs and evaluate the extent to which they promote globalisation.

    Economically, it realises a global common market which is based on the freedom of exchange of goods and capital. Financially, it emerges worldwide financial markets, and industrially it emerges worldwide production markets. It also allows a wider access to foreign products for consumers and companies. A trade bloc is an agreement between states, regions or countries, also called intergovernmental agreement, aiming to reduce barriers to trade (tariffs and non-tariffs barriers) between the participating states. Trade blocs emerged as a result of the desire to pursue in developing countries import-export development at a regional level, to isolate a region from the world economy and stabilise the economy within that region.

    • Word count: 1433
  15. The Pampas: The Temperate Grasslands of Argentina

    to economically benefit their home countries. This began to threaten the ecological integrity of the biome as the agriculture became more and more aggressive. Figure 2 A Gaucho herding a group of cattle in the Pampas. (5) According to S.E Smith, overgrazing has caused the rivers to become muddy and murky, ?causing problem downstream?. Intense agriculture of the region has ?stripped the soil of nutrients?, slowly crippling the once plentiful abundance of the land. On top of this, farmers are now experimenting with extralocal plants and herbs, which call for suppression by fire to protect the land.

    • Word count: 1093
  16. Somalian Famine. There is no such thing as an apolitical food problem, Amartya Sen, Nobel Prize winning Economist. Discuss this statement.

    Last year, the Horn of Africa, of which Somalia is part, was reported to have experienced the most severe drought in six decades. Normally, Somalia experiences two different monsoon seasons, one in spring/ summer, and the other (usually heavier) one in autumn ? this pattern had been quite predictable up until 2011, when the latter monsoon season did not occur in Southern Somalia, an area which is agriculturally vital to the country. This is shown in the following chart: This extreme environmental condition meant that there was a major lack of water supply to farms and crop-growing areas, which led to a rapid decline in harvest and yield for the year.

    • Word count: 1189
  17. Forestry Revival - The Revolution in Canadas Forest Industry

    Investors are encouraging Canada to pour more institutional funds into timberlands while trading globally to maximize benefits. Timber has traditionally been a good barrier against inflation and has provided stable investment returns for shareholders. Analysis In my opinion this major Canadian forestry ?revival? has come as a great advantage to Canada?s economy, however it was bound to happen at some point in the near future. The article states that Canada?s forestry industry has always been an ?underdog? to its other primary industries, providing employment to less than 1.9% of Canada?s workforce. However this figure encompasses tens of thousands of jobs.

    • Word count: 1751
  18. Illegal Immigration and Lebanon Postion Paper

    They may increase the crime rate as theft or terrorism, to bring imbalance to a nation?s economy or merely disrupt the society. . Many are struggling to combat this issue due to the large amount of illegal immigrants and the lack of international cooperation. This also results in the harm of these immigrants as most of them are subject to slavery, prostitution and other such crimes. Many Policies have led to the involvement of the UN like The International Organization of Migration (IOM)

    • Word count: 1116
  19. Evidence of Globalization in SofiaBulgaria

    Immigration and local migration: There is one major problem here in Bulgaria, called local migration and it concerns the almost constant flow of people from all over the country?s provinces to the big city, especially to the capital ? Sofia. Yet again, globalization has let to very low taxes and has eliminated the trade borders. Bulgarian agriculture is, or should I say ?was?, famous for its wide variety of high quality fruits, vegetables and other natural products. But, quality comes with the price.

    • Word count: 1381
  20. Discuss the causes of overfishing and evaluate the attempts to remedy this problem

    Of the nation's 267 major fish stocks, roughly 20% are either already overfished, experiencing overfishing, or approaching an overfished condition. This rate of overfishing has not primarily been due to the growing numbers of fishermen and fishing boats across the world. One of the primary causes of overfishing is simple; the rate of fishing at its current rate now has resulted in a downward spiral of fishing efficiency. In the past several decades, fishing was not a sustainable global project because fishermen were unable to access every location and this stemmed primarily from low tech approaches to fishing, due to a large number of people fishing for subsistence purposes.

    • Word count: 1804
  21. Essay on Global Warming from 2 Perspectives

    The question is, which side is speaking the truth and to what extent can one be trusted? The Global Climate Change and specifically the Global Warming Theory was first mentioned in the ?New York Times? in 1929. Since then, the topic had gained rapid popularity. Officially, the Global Warming theory states that the temperatures of the Earth increase due to the ?greenhouse effect?, which is amplified by the rapid increase of the CO2 in the atmosphere. The ?greenhouse effect? is when the sun?s radiation gets reflected by the Earth?s ocean and trapped in the atmosphere by the ?greenhouse? gases (CO2, N2O, CH4 and others, but mainly CO2).

    • Word count: 1207
  22. Investigating the most suitable method to provide water in Johannesburg

    accessed to safe water source supply rose from 83 per cent in 1991 to 91 per cent in 2008, this indicated that about 15 million people have benefited during this period (Watson, 2008). In South Africa water availability varies dramatically both in time and space. The rainfall only has as low as 100mm in arid plateau area, while the rainfall in southeast area gets 1,000mm in average per year. This rainwater often causes floods and less of this water is used by people (Watson, 2008).

    • Word count: 1563
  23. Describe and explain weathering in desert environments (15 Marks)

    Sometimes, granular disintegration can occur. This is when individual grains of the rock fall off because different minerals within the rock expand and contract at different rates. This is because darker crystals within the rock absorb more heat and would tend to expand more than light materials. Another form of Mechanical weathering is frost shattering. Frost shattering occurs in areas where there is moisture and where the temperatures fluctuate above and below freezing. This process occurs when water from rainfall enters the joints and crevices in desert rocks.

    • Word count: 1014
  24. Revision notes on rivers, erosion and floods

    Hydraulic action) sheer force of water hitting the banks of the river. TRANSPORTATION: Traction: Large rocks and boulders are rolled along the bed of the river. Saltation : smaller stones are bounced along the bed of a river in a leap-frogging motion Suspension: fine material, light enough in weight to be carried by the river. It is the material that discolors the water. Solution) dissolved material is transported by the river. Erosion occurs when river is in flood. It can then carry huge amounts of material in suspension as well as being able to move the largest of boulders lying on its bed.

    • Word count: 1013
  25. How UK is being affected by climate change

    could increase by more than 20% by the 2080s. By contrast, in summer, central and southern UK could be much dryer than it is now with up to 18% less rainfall by 2080s. However northern England and Scotland is likely to experience the double whammy (double consequences) of both wetter summers and wetter winters. With hotter weather, the demand for water would increase significantly as would evaporation from reservoirs (tanks to save water). As a result droughts, already a problem in the south during the summers, are likely to become more severe.

    • Word count: 1153

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