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International Baccalaureate: Geography

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  1. Field Study - Granville Island, Vancouver

    It rests on the notion that centralization is a natural principle of order and that human settlements follow it. The theory relies on two concepts: threshold, the minimum market needed to bring about the selling of a particular good or service, and range, the maximum distance consumers are prepared to travel to acquire goods (at some point, the cost or inconvenience will outweigh the need for the good). PART B: METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION Waking up to the fresh morning breeze and wintry temperature of 2.1�C on Tuesday, February 27th, 2007, the classes arrived at Granville Island.

    • Word count: 5356
  2. Study of Agricultural Systems

    Several hundred thousand square miles of the Great Plains have fewer than six persons per square mile. Many have fewer than two persons per square mile. This problem is often intensified by the consolidation of farms and the difficulty of attracting modern industry to the region. As a result of such a small population in this particular area, there is a small input of labour. However, due to the USA's extremely successful economy as reflected by its high GDP (ranked 1st amongst all nations), the amount of capital is high. As well, the input of capital has always been high in the Great Plains as farming is highly mechanized.

    • Word count: 3415
  3. The Effect of Changing Distance From Toronto's Central Business District on Parking Prices.

    The characteristic of decreasing building height is relevant because at the core of the CBD, competition for land results in higher rent prices and businesses must therefore be more productive by maximizing land space (Waugh). On a limited expanse of land, the only way to do this is to build upwards, so taller buildings within the CBD will indicate a more economically prosperous area (Wakefield). Because of these immediately recognizable changes in the visual characteristics, it was decided to investigate if the spatial changes in the areas affected the financial aspects.

    • Word count: 4487
  4. What are the effects of global warming and initiatives taken by Wales and Iceland to reduce these effects?

    warming in both Iceland and Wales, and then comparing how efficient Iceland and Wales are at tackling the problem and fortifying themselves from the problem. This investigation will be using statistics and primary resources to come up with a balanced argument, by making impartial judgements and using the information to draw a conclusion for possible solutions that Wales can follow to reduce our countries carbon footprint. In order to effectively compare both countries respectively, we will compare both micro-generation initiatives, governmental initiatives, and review the level of CO2 present in both countries.

    • Word count: 2838
  5. Clean Energy Production in the UAE Essay

    The situation is frightening but real which is harmful to the environment. We all know that we rely on these fossil fuels how will the UAE function without crude oil? Inside the UAE there is controversy in wither renewable energy is proficient or not. This question has raised based on the economy and the government?s opinion, we must step forward to implement and use renewable energy rather then common fossil fuels. Replacing the fossil fuels is beneficial to the environmental problems.

    • Word count: 1208
  6. The Problem of Corruption in Egypt

    * Petty corruption will remain a problem so long as Egypt does not have a minimum wage. Existing salaries tend to be very low, leading many individuals to solicit bribes as a way of keeping financially afloat. Corruption in Egypt * Egypt ranked 114th out of 177 in the Corruption Perceptions Index 2013, conducted by the global coalition against corruption Transparency International, which surveys the corruption levels of countries worldwide. Egypt?s rank in the 2012 report was 118, out of the 174 countries surveyed.

    • Word count: 3616
  7. Geography - Building a Sustainable House in Australia

    This is often referred to as Passive Heating. The block is a north south orientated block and is perfect for sun positioning during winter and summer. The bedrooms will be placed in the southern side of the house as they will be warm in the winter and will not receive much heat in the winter. The living room will be placed Large Windows will be placed on the Northern Side of the house to maximize the winter sun and to heat the living room.

    • Word count: 3993
  8. Fukushima Earthquake And Tsunami 2011

    Around the globe scientists and organisations have attempted to develop method of detecting earthquakes so that maximum damage can be prevented. Currently, around the globe seismometers, sea walls and building modeling are used to detect earthquakes through the readings of seismic waves. This scientific solution has potential to minimise damage from earthquakes and tsunamis around the globe if implemented correctly and its negatives minimized. The Application of Science To Detect Earthquakes and Consequently Prevent Damage-Seismometers Earthquakes can be detected by measuring the frequency of the seismic waves in a particular area using a scientific device such as a seismometer.

    • Word count: 2587
  9. Antarctica Report - The Location And Purpose Of Mawson Station

    ?The Antarctic Treaty? was designed and created by twelve original countries (there are now 38 countries) in 1961 to provide an agreement for the future care and use of Antarctica and to avoid territorial and other disputes. The Treaty encourages international co-operation in scientific research and in recognition of Antarctica being the last remaining ?wilderness? on Earth, the ?Madrid Protocol? was established to help the conservation of the environment and peace on Antarctica. Elements of The Antarctic Treaty include: Antarctica shall be used for peaceful purposes only (Art.1), Freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue (Art.2), Scientific observations and results from Antarctica shall be exchanged and made freely available (Art.

    • Word count: 7849
  10. Antarctica Report - the environment and scientific research

    ?The Antarctic Treaty? was designed and created by twelve original countries (there are now 38 countries) in 1961 to provide an agreement for the future care and use of Antarctica and to avoid territorial and other disputes. The Treaty encourages international co-operation in scientific research and in recognition of Antarctica being the last remaining ?wilderness? on Earth, the ?Madrid Protocol? was established to help the conservation of the environment and peace on Antarctica. Elements of The Antarctic Treaty include: Antarctica shall be used for peaceful purposes only (Art.1), Freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue (Art.2), Scientific observations and results from Antarctica shall be exchanged and made freely available (Art.

    • Word count: 7849
  11. Examine the geographical consequences of international outsourcing

    One of the main expansion of international outsourcing is the ICT sector, otherwise known as information and communication technologies. As communication such as video-conferencing capability have improved, outsourcing ICT work to offshore destinations have developed to a point where software can be developed independently of location provided connections are adequate. The outsourcing destinations favored by US and European software developers include China, Korea, Mexico, and India. The geographical consequences of international outsourcing can clearly be found in India where the software export industry is worth more than 1 billion dollars each year. The number of companies in MEDCs that have outsourced their software by subcontracting has increased rapidly.

    • Word count: 612
  12. Religious leaders - among them Catholic bishops - has gone far in condemning the use of condoms for young people as well as adults in Africa.

    In my opinion it is very crucial. The Christian missionaries teach that it is a sin to use condoms at such a young ag. They compare it to as the act of stealing and are also focusing on the consequences on this act. From religious authorities, it is often argued that extensive campaigns for condom use may also lead to the opposite of what you want because it can lead to greater sexual behavior.

    • Word count: 428
  13. Analysis of the Progress made towards the Millennium Development Goals.

    This would represent a near success in the objectives, exceeding by 40 million people (2.222% more than required). This number may therefore not be an extremely significant amount in percentages but, differently, is a major quantity of humans suffering poor economical conditions. Because this indicator considers the poverty limit at 1.25$, instead of 1$ as the MDG goal describes, the excessive 40 million people could be most probably due to the additional 0.25$. This major improvement was forecasted despite the economical breakdown of 2008/09.

    • Word count: 1482
  14. Give an example of a measurement of globalization and evaluate its effectiveness in describing patterns of globalization.

    The political globalization indicator looks for aspects of a country that would make it more international and diplomatic such as the diffusion of government policies. It also looks at the number of embassies and high commissions a country has as well as the number of international organizations to which a country is a member of. Furthermore, this indicator takes the number of UN peace missions a country has participated in and the number of signed treaties between two or more states into account.

    • Word count: 798
  15. Why do China and Hong Kong have an ageing population? What influence have political decisions had on the population structure of China and Hong Kong?

    But if we compare it to the size of Hong Kong, it?s quite a populous place. And this large number of population is caused by the hight birth rate and low death rate. China has a birth rate of 13.71 per 1000 population and death rate of 7.03 per 1000 population. And for Hong Kong, the birth rate is 11.7 per population and death rate is 6.76 per 1000 population. As we can see, the death rate of both China and Hong Kong is almost a half less than the birth rate and this is why they have an aging population.

    • Word count: 721
  16. Climate change notes

    4. Earth rotates tilted (23.5º) on an axis every 24 hrs 5. the combination of Earth’s annual orbit and its tilted axis produces the seasons Revolution: the time it takes for an object to orbit another object 1. it takes earth 365.24 days to make a complete revolution around the sun CHANGES IN EARTH’S ORBIT 1. Earth’s orbit, tilt and rotation change in repeating cycles 2. (1) Eccentricity: every 100 000 years, Earth’s orbit changes from circular to elliptical 3. Elliptical orbit means more solar energy for Earth which affects length of seasons 4.

    • Word count: 699
  17. Urbanization and Land Use in New York City

    The immigrants that migrated based on family preferences were looking mainly for employment. This was done so that the immigrants could take better care of their families such as better education for their children and better health care and security. Though since these immigrants are so poor they prefer to live in the slums so that their living costs are reduced. The main reason/cause of the increasing population is due to the natural increase and the increase of international migration. The city continued to grow due to the migration from the south and from Puerto Rico.

    • Word count: 946
  18. Drought in Australia Research Project

    Other natural processes also allow for droughts. An example is the El Niño which causes droughts throughout Australia2.[1]El Niño is a disruption in the atmospheric-ocean system in the tropical Pacific. During El Niño the trade winds flow east towards South America due to the top of the Pacific Ocean being covered in warm water. This causes a shift from a low pressure system that Australia has on a normal year to a high pressure system. The nature of the high pressure system, as mentioned earlier, is descending, warm, and dry air, meaning Australia becomes more susceptible to drought.

    • Word count: 2329
  19. Describe and evaluate water management strategies (excluding those directed at flood control).

    As well, the Aswan Dam is used to regulate the fall of the Nile up ? and downstream, having a better outcome on the navigation of Lake Nasser and on tourism, as the dam became an important tourist attraction of Egypt. In addition, the dam enables water transfer to other rivers, which then can be used for municipal, agricultural and industrial purposes and enables more job possibilities. Although the Aswan dam has a very positive outcome on water management, it has its limitations as well, since about 100,000 indigenous Egyptians were forced to move, as the area was needed to build the dam.

    • Word count: 1204
  20. Examine the global patterns and trends in the production and consumption of oil and discuss its geopolitical and environmental impacts.

    Today, we consume about 87,000 thousand barrels per day. Figure 2 shows the oil production and consumption by country. Figure 1: Global Oil Production and Consumption by Year Figure 2: Gobal Oil Production (left) and Consumption (right) by year Overall, the production and consumption of oil has steadily increased because as countries develop and industrialize, their oil consumption grows with their economy. Today, China?s and India?s economies have been growing very rapidly, and the impact on oil demand has already begun.

    • Word count: 1063
  21. Discuss the concept of food security

    To an extent this means that food security only exists when all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Due to population increase in some places people are already not getting enough food. Supply and demand also cause problems for the more vulnerable in society, as if prices go up the supply of food should still be affordable for all. National food security is at the smaller scale having enough food available within a country to feed all the people within the country.

    • Word count: 719
  22. Describe the variations in trade blocs and evaluate the extent to which they promote globalisation.

    Economically, it realises a global common market which is based on the freedom of exchange of goods and capital. Financially, it emerges worldwide financial markets, and industrially it emerges worldwide production markets. It also allows a wider access to foreign products for consumers and companies. A trade bloc is an agreement between states, regions or countries, also called intergovernmental agreement, aiming to reduce barriers to trade (tariffs and non-tariffs barriers) between the participating states. Trade blocs emerged as a result of the desire to pursue in developing countries import-export development at a regional level, to isolate a region from the world economy and stabilise the economy within that region.

    • Word count: 1433
  23. Contrast and compare the causes and effects of internal and international migration

    There are a lot of reasons why international migration occurs: On the one hand there is the voluntary migration, on the other hand the forced migration. The causes for voluntary international migration are split into three groups, the macro-level, the meso-level and the micro-level. The macro-level causes for voluntary international migration are for example socio-economic reasons. The meso-level causes for voluntary international migration are more detailed factors concerning the origin and the destination places.

    • Word count: 531
  24. Governments attempts to control population growth are ineffective. Discuss.

    This money is given by ?Child maintenance? which is paid monthly and also by lower taxes for those families. Furthermore, the time a mother is allowed to be out of work for having a baby is expanded to 1 year and also the father is allowed to be out of job during this time. These policies have just a minor effect on the population growth of the UK. In reality, there are some factors which are much more affecting the current birthrate, such as the financial crisis. This crisis is affecting the birthrate, because families cannot spend their money on children anymore, because the financial situation is insecure.

    • Word count: 584
  25. The Pampas: The Temperate Grasslands of Argentina

    to economically benefit their home countries. This began to threaten the ecological integrity of the biome as the agriculture became more and more aggressive. Figure 2 A Gaucho herding a group of cattle in the Pampas. (5) According to S.E Smith, overgrazing has caused the rivers to become muddy and murky, ?causing problem downstream?. Intense agriculture of the region has ?stripped the soil of nutrients?, slowly crippling the once plentiful abundance of the land. On top of this, farmers are now experimenting with extralocal plants and herbs, which call for suppression by fire to protect the land.

    • Word count: 1093

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