Evaluate the success of urban regeneration schemes in combating the causes of urban decline - essay plan

Authors Avatar by imogen-scoularhotmailcom (student)

  1. Definitions:
  • Urban decline: decrease in economic activity in an urban area causes it to become run down
  • Regeneration: attracting people back into urban areas after urban decline three types: gentrification, partnership schemes and property led regeneration

  1. Arguments:
  • Types of regeneration schemes and their successes

  1. Case studies:
  • Islington
  • Hulme
  • Thames gateway

  1. Causes of urban decline:
  • Decline in industry: movement of manufacturing overseas causes industry to close, may also move to sites outside of the city centre where rent is cheaper
  • Increase in unemployment: if industry declines then there’ll be a loss of jobs and increase in unemployment. Some unemployed people will move out to find jobs elsewhere. Remaining jobs will be unskilled or low paid
  • Shops and services decline: fewer people to use the shops and services. The people who remain have less disposable income to spend. The shops may be forced to close down and services may decline
  • The physical environment will decline: people who move out and leave empty buildings which may attract crime (vandalism and graffiti) recreational areas neglected and may attract crimes such as drug deals and as the area becomes unattractive less people want to live there.

  1. Gentrification:
  • DESCRIBE: when wealthier people move into a run down area and regenerate it by improving their housing. Often causes social changes in the area - lower income groups are replaced by more affluent people
  • CASE STUDY: islington in London has been gentrified: a borough in north LDN with lots of Georgian/Victorian houses originally occupied by wealthy residents. In the 19thC railways expanded and made access to the city easier so wealthier residents moved out to suburbs; poorer residents moved in and it became overcrowded; in the 60s middle class people began to buy properties in islington because across the city there was an increase in jobs in the service sector e.g. Law and a decrease in jobs in manufacturing sector. People working in service sector tended to be young well paid and work long hours so they wanted to live close to the CC. Islington was well connected to cc by Angel underground station. Houses were large attractive and cheaper than other areas of LDN and people could renovate to suit their tastes.
  • IMPACTS/DID IT COMBAT DECLINE? It did and it didnt:
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  • improved housing as wealthier residents renovated/improved many properties (restoring original features)
  • New businesses opened e.g. Wine bars bringing money and jobs to the area

However, in some respects it didn’t combat the decline as:

  • it increased house prices from £130000 to £430000 making it difficult for people on lower salaries to live there; many original residents forced out of area or into social housing (social housing = 50% in 08)
  • There was a wealth gap between the richest and poorest residents (richest 20% more than £60000 and poorest 20% earn less than £15 000 a year.) 07 ...

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