President Hoover and the Great Depression I. Was Hoover inconsistent? A cursory examination of the Great Depression will inform us immediately the President Hoover's policies during the Depression did appear to be inconsistent. This often resulted in confused or startled interpretations of the government's designs by leading businessmen of the period, and it is indisputable that the effects of Hoover's presidency, certainly were not to cure America of its financial distress. However, sympathy is needed to understand Hoover's motivations. Although Hoover's government may have demonstrated unaccountable and inconsistent tendencies, Hoover himself would certainly have been consistent in his ideas. His main difficulty in employing these ideas, would have encompassed the political scene; he could not have contrived considerable alterations of government policy, without being acused of radical interventionism, which would have engendered the repugnance of the both the Republican party to which he belonged, and Republican voters. Indeed, Hoover had a distinct notion of what he intended to undertake - but he was all the while confronted by forces that hindered his undertaking them. IIa. Hoover's ideas It will be of good utility to illustrate Hoover's ideas in bullet-point format, which will enable them to be more easily digested and remembered. . Hoover was a humanitarian.
The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, is unique because Douglass, an escaped slave with no formal education, wrote the entire account himself.
Frederick Douglass: A Model Student The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, is unique because Douglass, an escaped slave with no formal education, wrote the entire account himself. As a result, Frederick Douglass is one of the originators of the uniquely American genre, the slave narrative. Douglass' literary works are influenced greatly by his first book, written by Caleb Bingham. Douglass' first book purchase, The Columbian Orator did more than teach him to read and write; The Columbian Orator gives Douglass his first contact with vocalized anti-slavery issues and influences Douglass' orator skills allowing his words to reach a much broader audience. As a young boy, Frederick Douglass is sent to Baltimore to remain with relatives of his master, Thomas Auld. His new mistress, Sophia Auld, began to "teach [Douglass] the A, B, C" and "assisted [Douglass] in learning to spell words of three or four letters" (1776). This "kind and tender-hearted woman" (1776) instructs Douglass despite her husband, who argued that educating slaves was unlawful. Though Mrs. Auld is not able to continue teaching Douglass, she "had given [Douglass] the inch and no precaution could prevent [him] from taking the ell" (1778). Once Douglass acquires The Columbian Orator, his search for knowledge blossoms for he knew the institution of slavery is wrong and these words on
Who or what was responsible for the creation of a divided, racist & segregated society in the period 1877-1918?
Who or what was responsible for the creation of a divided, racist & segregated society in the period 1877-1918? ________________ There are many views on who or what was responsible for the racial inequality in the United States during 1877 and 1918. Factors such as the role of the federal government, the individual states, the actions of white extremists, plus others, all had their separate impacts upon the status of Afro-Americans throughout America, however, which one was the most important? Firstly, the role played by the federal government; most importantly the five Presidents that were in office during the period. There appears to be a general trend amongst Cleveland, McKinley, T. Roosevelt and Taft, that although they may have positive ideas to improving the lives of Afro-Americans, they either proved ineffective or weren’t implemented to enough extent. Grover Cleveland failed to demonstrate any sympathy for African-Americans and did nothing to help those members of that community who were oppressed in Southern states. McKinley’s administration achieved little to alleviate the backwards situation of black Americans because, according to historian Gerald Bahles, McKinley was "unwilling to alienate the white South." However, McKinley did appoint thirty African-Americans to diplomatic and record office positions, which shows that maybe the situation of blacks
________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ BACKGROUND – KEY LAWS TO 1945 . 1866: Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution abolishes slavery in the U.S. 2. 1868: The Fourteenth Amendment - guaranteed all citizens equality before the law and declared that federal government could intervene if any states tried to deny this. 3. 1870: Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution guarantees the right of male citizens of the United States to vote regardless of race, color or previous condition of servitude. However … . Individual states controlled voting, education, transport and law enforcement. Southern States introduced laws that legalised segregation – known as Jim Crow Laws. Examples = laws that separated white from black on trains, buses, restaurants, schools, theatres etc) . By 1890S most blacks in the south were disfranchised through voter registration restrictions – eg - poll taxes, residency and literacy tests. This shut them out of the political process, including service on juries and in local offices. 2. The grandfather clause provided exemption for illiterate whites to voter registration literacy test
How Accurate Is It To Say That The Status Of Black People In The US Changed Very Little In The Years 1945 1955?
How Accurate Is It To Say That The Status Of Black People In The US Changed Very Little In The Years 1945 – 1955? Despite over 1.2 million black soldiers fighting alongside white soldiers in the Second World War in the decade following their return they would see very little change, both in the Southern and Northern. As segregation was still legally enforced under ‘Jim Crow’ laws, blacks couldn’t use the same water fountains as white Americans and education was still segregated. However, the end of this period became somewhat of a catalyst for the civil rights movement and started change throughout the American states, as attitudes began to shift and move Northern white liberals began to speak out. Across the ex-confederate states de Jure segregation still officially enforced discrimination, preventing black citizens from sitting next to white people in a restaurant or using the same water fountain as them. This further extended to public transport, as on buses blacks were forced to sit at the back of the and fully expected to give up their seat if a white person wanted it. They were even made to move if a white person occupied the same row as them, this continued onto interstate trains where carriages were fully segregated as coloured passengers were not allowed on to a white carriage. Showing little change from the conditions they were previously faced with.
Jesse Owusu History How far had equality for black Americans been achieved by 1968? Equality for black Americans hadn’t been achieved by 1968. Although, the foundation for change had been set up most noticeably in de jure segregation. The various civil rights acts now had given black Americans equality but strictly only within the law. It would take many more years to change the defacto segregation, which still left African Americans as 2nd class citizens. This is because it’s very hard to change people’s thoughts and opinions, opposed the changing the law, which can be done relatively easily. Before 1968 things were not equal at all there was a significant gap between white and black Americans as 57% of African American housing was judged to be unacceptable, African American life expectancy was 7 years less than whites, African American infant mortality was twice as great as whites, African Americans found it all but impossible to get mortgages from mortgage lenders, Property values would dropped a great deal if an African American family moved into a neighbourhood that was not a ghetto. Although progress was made in most areas of American society like: transport, desegregation, employment, public places, voting rights and public opinion. Nevertheless one area that made little to no progress or had no equality by 1968 was housing. Firstly, the civil
Birmingham: Civil Rights March, 1963 Birmingham held a key role in the movement because of a number of reasons: whether it was through the activities of Bull Connor or the bombed church which killed four school girls, or the activity of the Ku Klux Klan which also had a stronghold in the Alabama capital which would have clashed with the strong in number black population. In 1963 Martin Luther King organised a civil rights march in Birmingham, Alabama. Six years after the Montgomery decision, this city had still not been desegregated (desegregation of buses in Alabama). Its police force was notoriously racist. It had links to the Ku Klux Klan. The aim of the march was to turn media attention on Birmingham to expose its policies to national attention. King knew that, with civil rights now a national issue, the American and international media would cover the march in detail. The Police Chief, Bull Connor obliged. In the full glare of media publicity, police and fire officers turned dogs and fire hoses on the peaceful protesters. The police arrested over 1,000 protesters; including King himself and many were put in jail. Critics accused King of provoking the violence by staging the march. King stipulated to this in a statement as he comments on his tactics, as he mentions that they were “forcing our oppressor to commit his brutality openly- in the light of day- with the rest
One way in which the Little Rock Crisis can be considered a turning point is that some Southern cities like Raleigh and Atlanta learned that resistance to integration harmed business, and so they avoided large scale civil rights disturbances by integrating. Despite only 49 more school districts desegregating in Eisenhower’s last three years in office, compared to 712 in the three years after Brown, this small number of notable desegregations assisted civil rights and the desegregation of education campaign, by beginning the trend and provoking other Southern schools to desegregate too. Another result of the Little Rock Crisis of 1957 which fuelled further desegregation of schools was that the scenes of violence and racism outside Central High School helping to influence moderate white opinion in support of civil rights. On September 4th 15 year old Elizabeth Eckford was greeted by a mob screaming ‘lynch her! Lynch her!’ The whole of the Little Rock Nine were continually abused, spat on, tripped. Melba Pattillo was nearly blinded by a chemical thrown in her eyes. This array of violence sparked an increase in civil rights protestors and also led to the Supreme Court decision that any law that sought to keep public schools segregated was unconstitutional in Cooper v. Aaron 1958. This new stance aided the desegregation of schools as it was now known that segregation of
How Far Do You Agree That The Impact Of World War 2 Was The Main Reason The Position Of Afro-Americans Changed?
How Far Do You Agree That The Impact Of World War 2 Was The Main Reason The Position Of Afro-Americans Improved Between 1945-55? Undoubtedly the impact of the Second World War played a vital factor in changing the lives of Afro-Americans between 1945-55, leading to Federal Support however the impact is diminished next to other factors that brought about change. Which despite making slow changes were able to convert De Jure into De Facto change, something that was not achieved by the Second World War The impact of the Second World War was influential in improving the lives of Black Americans because it led to federal support. It also allowed many black soldiers to experience live outside of America for the first time in their lives during stays in Britain and France. They experienced no formal segregation in either country instead they were treated as heroes regardless of their skin colour.Following the Second World War which Black Americans had played such a large part in, President Truman felt he had to commit to improving Civil Rights for Black Americans which became evident following the report ‘to secure these rights.’ Following the report several initiatives were organized, notably the signing of executive orders, that were crucial in improving the lives of Black Americans. As they guaranteed fair employment practices in the Civil Services and that defense
The Civil Rights Movement aimed to outlaw racial discrimination and enabling African Americans equal rights. I believe that peaceful protests played a bigger role in improving civil rights because they took a direct approach to confront the problems of segregation and racism. Although presidents provided federal support and passed Civil Rights Acts, these only made de jure change and limited de facto change. As well as this, they had to be pressured to take federal action to make a contribution. Civil Rights Leaders inspired their organisations, like King, who made speeches and marches advocating Civil Rights. Peaceful protests were an effective method of supporting the Movement as marches and sit-ins demonstrated beliefs and attitudes without harm caused to anyone. Mass activism showed the public what was to be supported and outlined what needed to be changed or amended in society, such as CORE's Freedom Rides to test Morgan V Virginia. Presidents tried to actively contribute to civil rights. This may have included passing Civil Rights Acts for equality, such as Eisenhower’s 1957 Act; that all citizens could have the right to vote. Setting up organisations, such as Kennedy’s CEEO, designed to ensure equal opportunities for people working for the federal government. Presidents had to ask Congress to pass civil rights laws, which was often obstructed by Southern racist