Training Programme - I want to build up my stamina because I need it in long-length sports, like football. I want to build up my strength because it is basically my weakness.

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Purpose And Aim Of Training Programme

My name is Hammad Naveed; I am 15 years old, my height is about five foot two, and I weigh about seven stone. I want to do a training programme based on stamina to building up my endurance, which should also lead to a build up of my strength, also. I want to build up my stamina because I need it in long-length sports, like football. I want to build up my strength because it is basically my weakness.

I am a 15-year-old male and I am going to devise a training programme for myself to do over the next 6 weeks. I play a lot of football but also enjoy many other sports including cricket, squash and athletics all of which along with football I participate in regularly.

The main reason I want to get fitter is because I feel my performance at the end of a game is not as high as it could be because my body is tired and is not performing at its peak level for a long enough period. This also has a major affect on my performance because I can't carry out skills as quickly or as well towards the end of a game to the level that I know I can. This then gets me frustrated and can have a negative effect on not only me but also the rest of the team.

I feel that if I design a training program to improve my fitness my performance will be greatly enhanced and will not only help myself but other people as well.

I am quite lucky in the fact that I have no real health problems and have suffered no major injuries in my sporting life. However I can be prone to pulled or strained muscles after tiring exercise so I will have to make sure that I have an appropriate cool down that will stop this from happening on my training programme.

Much of the research in this section of my project would have been taken from the website “” or from the book “PE 4 U”.

The purpose of a Training Programme is to identify the work to be carried out to achieve agreed objectives. Our objectives could either be, to improve strength, stamina, speed, or suppleness.

Preparation, training, and fitness relate to the training programme in a basic way. You have got to be or have done these three things to get a positive training programme.

If you are not or have not done these three things it will affect your performance in a very negative way.

If you haven’t prepared, if you haven’t been training, and you’re not fit than you will not perform as good as you could have done. This is because your muscles would have been relaxing for a long time period and so when you start the programme your muscles wont be ready to carry out a task which you have not done for a long time. But if you had been training than your body would easily be able to take on this task, then you will perform better than someone who has not trained.

Exercise is very important, if you want to be fit and healthy. Exercise keeps the body in good physical condition, unlike most machines, the body’s main motor, the heart, actually works better the more it is worked. Other organs and body systems also work better if they are exercised regularly.

The minimum amount of exercise recommended is three times a week for approximately twenty minutes. The intensity of the exercise needs to be enough to make you breathless.

Short-term effects of exercise are ones that happen during the exercise itself. For example the heart rate increases, which in turn increases the flow and pressure of the blood.

Although these will return to normal at the end of the exercise, they will contribute to the long-term effects of exercise.

The long term-effects of exercise are lasting changes that take place in response to regular physical activity. All these effects help the body to work more efficiently and deal better with the demands that we place on it when we take part in sport.

If you are personally and mentally healthy, it is a very big advantage because it can be used to see success. Many sportsmen see themselves achieving their goals on a regular basis, both performing skills at a high level and seeing the desired performance.

This could also motivate you. Before or during training sessions, calling up images of your goals for that session, or of a past or future competition can serve a motivational purpose.

Although the words health and fitness are often used together, they are actually two different concepts. To be healthy means to feel well and free from disease. Fitness is one way of developing a healthy lifestyle, but there are also many other ways of getting healthy.

In order to keep healthy we have to look after our bodies and minds. Feeling good and looking good will make our lives more enjoyable. There are four main components, which make up a healthy lifestyle; they are exercise, diet, hygiene, and rest.

There are five different principles of training and they all help you become fit, safely:

First one is called overload. Overload is when you force your body to work harder.

Than there’s progression. Progression is when you gradually increase the workload as you train.

Specificity is when you choose the right training for a specific sport.

Reversibility is to understand that fitness cannot be stored for future use and will disappear if you stop training.

Finally variance, this is varying the training in order to keep you motivated.

In my training programme I will be using the principle of training, progression, mostly. This is because I think that this is the most effective principle of training to use if you are trying to build up your endurance. I also used overload as well but only in a couple of occasions. Overload is mainly used whilst working on your strength but if it is used continuously, it should also increase stamina.

There are four different methods of training. They are continuous training, fartlek training, interval training, and weight training.

Endurance training will help you to keep playing longer and at a higher intensity. This is also known as aerobic training, it is called this because it improves the aerobic systems of your body.

Activities such as fast walking, jogging running, cycling, swimming and rowing are good examples of aerobic training.

Endurance training should involve the whole body.

It is continuous which means you do not stop to rest but it is only sub-maximal, meaning that you do not work flat out.

Fartlek training is another type of training, which can be used to develop endurance. This is when a runner runs fast and slows, both over hills and on the flat. A typical session will contain of steady-paced running, sprints, hill-work, and some slower recovery running. There are many different types of fartlek training.

The purpose of interval training is to develop both the anaerobic and aerobic systems. This type of training is used mostly, since most sports require both types of systems to produce energy.

In interval training periods of exercise is followed by short periods of rest. The rest period is very important, since the faster the body can replace oxygen and other fuels, the better it will work. There are four main parts to interval training. They are duration, intensity, recovery, and number of work and recovery periods.

Better performances can be the product of a number of factors. This product is primarily the outcome of efficient technique, the progression of speed and the maturing competitive attitude on a sound basis of general endurance, all round strength and general mobility. The development of all round strength is best achieved via circuit training and then progressing this through strength training. Weight training is the most widely used and popular method of increasing strength.

I actually use all four of these methods of training in my programme, I use continuous training, interval training, fartlek training, and weights training. I use continuous training the most, though, as I will need it the most if my aim is to build up my stamina.

There are four aspects of fitness. They are speed, suppleness, strength, and stamina.

Speed is the quickness of movement of limb, whether it is the legs of a runner or the arm of the shot putter. Speed is an integral part of every sport and can be expressed by a combination of, the following maximum speed, elastic strength (power), and speed endurance.

Speed is influenced by the athlete's mobility, special strength, strength endurance and technique.

For a number of sports acceleration and speed over a short distance is very important, like in Football, Basket Ball, Baseball, Cricket, Hockey, and Rugby.

Flexibility, mobility and suppleness all mean the range of limb movement around joints. Suppleness is the ability to perform a joint action through a range of movement.

The objective of Flexibility training is to improve the range of stretch of the muscles.

Flexibility plays an important part in the preparation of athletes by developing a range of movement to help prevent any injury.

Mobility exercises could be part of the warm up programme.

It is considered beneficial to conduct mobility exercises as part of the warm down programme but should not include ballistic exercises because there is more chance of injury. Static exercises are recommended as they relax the muscles and increase their range of movement.

The common definition of strength is the ability to exert a force against a resistance.

There are different types of strength. They are Maximum strength, which is the greatest force that is possible in a single maximum contraction. There is Elastic strength, which is the ability to overcome a resistance with a fast contraction. Finally there is Strength endurance, which is the ability to express force many times over.

A muscle will only strengthen when it is worked beyond its normal operation. It is overloaded. Overload can be progressed by increasing the number of repetitions of an exercise, the number of sets of the exercise, and by increasing intensity, whilst reducing recovery time.

The objective of endurance training is to develop the energy production systems to meet the demands of the event.

The types of endurance are Aerobic endurance, anaerobic endurance, Speed endurance and Strength endurance.

We already know that the aspect of fitness I am trying to improve is my stamina, and the aspect of strength will also come into my training programme.

We know about the five principles of training, which are overload, progression, specificity, regression, and variance.

We also know the methods of training, what they are used for and how it will help us. They are continuous, interval, fartlek, and weights training.

My training programme will be based on stamina. This is mainly because endurance is what I need the most out of the four aspects but I also would like to build up my strength. I can benefit from both the strength and stamina whilst playing in tougher sports like rugby and sports with a longer duration, such as cricket and football.

I am not aiming to get a particular part of my body built up so even though the training principle, specificity, is mainly used in weights training, I will not be focusing only on this training principle, because I am not going to build a specific part of my body up.

As I stated earlier muscles will only strengthen when it is worked beyond its normal operation. It is overloaded. Overload can be progressed by increasing the number of repetitions of an exercise, the number of sets of the exercise, and by increasing intensity, whilst reducing recovery time.

So I will probably go for machines, which focus overload and progression as its training principle. Using progression will also build my stamina.

Even though continuous training is quiet boring, because you don’t stop or change speed, I will use it most often because it will work effectively on my endurance.

Some people may choose a specific training principle for a specific part of their body and so, to meet the demands for a specific sport.

The aspect of fitness, which I am focusing on, is strength endurance. I have chosen this because I want to build up my general strength and stamina, this could help me perform better in sports like rugby.

Better performances can be the product of a number of factors. The development of all round strength and stamina is best achieved via circuit training, and this is one of the reasons why I chose strength endurance, because we are being made to do circuit training and strength endurance is best improved through this.

Safety Aspects

Injuries decrease the amount of time you can spend on training or doing activities, lower your fitness, downgrade your performance, and can lead to long-term health problems.

Although without the same potential of injury that can be received in such sports as soccer, rugby or boxing, sports like athletics nevertheless does present situations from which injury can result. Knowledge of these, and how to avoid them is important.

You can be injured for the reason that of aspects about the area you are training in, the way you use equipment, or because of safety/supervision conditions.

The area that you are doing your training in should have a sufficient amount of spacing between the equipment. There should be an adequate amount of lighting and ventilation. Lastly about the location, the floor should be even, firm and non-slip, otherwise this could cause a considerable amount of problems.

  The equipment should be inspected carefully, bar collars should be tightened before any use. Any benches or seating areas should be clean. The floor should be cleared of any equipment not in use, for example weights. Appropriate supportive footwear should be worn as well as appropriate clothing.    

Strength training is safe when properly supervised and controlled. Every weight room should have a set of rules and

regulations pertaining to safety and they should be on public display. Rules may vary from one weight room to another but some very basic rules apply to them all:

  • Train only when a qualified coach is present
  • Follow your training schedule
  • Work in pairs - one lifting the other watching
  • No messing around
  • Wear the correct clothing and shoes
  • No eating, drinking or smoking
  • No personal stereos with headphones
  • Help and respect other athletes
  • Only athletes who are working out should be in the weight room

Make sure you and your athletes are fully aware of the safety rules applying to the weight training room(s) you use.

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Maximal lifting of weights should be avoided. There should be firm teacher supervision required at all times. You should know the correct techniques in using the machines, and also you should never train alone.

Many injuries are caused by weak , which simply are not ready to handle the specific demands of your sport. For example, people who start a running programme for the first time often do well for a few weeks but then, as they add the mileage on, suddenly develop injuries. Their bodies are simply not strong enough to cope with the demands of the ...

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