• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

'To what extent does psychological research support Atkinson and Shiffrin's model of memory?'

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

'Rehearsal is the key to understanding human memory.' 'To what extent does psychological research support Atkinson and Shiffrin's model of memory?' 'Learning is the acquisition of knowledge and memory is the storage of an internal representation of that knowledge.' Blackemore (1988) The multi-store model consists of three main stores - the sensory memory store, the short-term memory (STM) store and the long-term memory (LTM). The sensory memory transfers information to STM. It is made up of five stores, one for each sense. The model sees STM as a crucial part of the memory system as without it information cannot get into or out of the LTM. Information can only be stored into LTM by passing through STM and can only be retrieved from LTM by entering STM. Rehearsal is the repetition of information in order to retain it in the STM. The multi-store model states that the longer information is in the STM and the more it is rehearsed, the more likely it is to be transferred to LTM. ...read more.

Middle

The multi-store model sees no divisions within STM and LTM - they are seen as unitary stores. However, both STM and LTM may well have different memory systems operating within them. Baddeley & Hitch (1974) argue that the picture of STM painted by the multi-store model is far too simple. Their working memory model presents a far more complex view of STM. It is not a unitary system. On the contrary, it has a number of components, each of which specialise in particular tasks. Its also states that information is analysed, evaluated and 'worked on', not just rehearsed in STM. KF suffered brain damage from a motorcycle accident, which severely impaired his STM but left his LTM intact. In terms of the multi-store model, this cannot happen since all information in LTM passes through STM. However, KF's STM impairment was mainly for verbal material. His STM for visual material and meaningful sounds was largely unaffected (Shallice & Warrington, 1974). ...read more.

Conclusion

There is a vast amount of evidence present to suggest that it is not the best model to use. It is branded as presenting an oversimplified view of memory and researchers seem to reject most concepts of the model as new models are developed. However, since its development in 1968, Atkinson and Shiffrin's multi-store model has been very influential. The model itself is based on evidence from a wide range of studies. Early research conducted by George Sperling (1960) provides evidence for the presence of subsystems within sensory memory. In addition, there is considerable evidence for the existence of sensory memory, STM and LTM and as separate memory stores. Furthermore, the model led to large amounts of research in order to investigate the different aspects presented by the model and most researchers still accept the broad and basic ideas underlined by the multi-store model. In conclusion, although it may be branded as too simple and sometimes even rejected, it still presents some of the basic facts that everyone agrees with. Therefore, it should be taken into consideration. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a star student thought of this essay

4 star(s)

Response to the question

Response to Question: Overall this is a very good response – it has three main sections: an introduction, the arguments for and against the multi-store model, and the conclusion. A clear structure is good as it encourages a good, scientific ...

Read full review

Response to the question

Response to Question: Overall this is a very good response – it has three main sections: an introduction, the arguments for and against the multi-store model, and the conclusion. A clear structure is good as it encourages a good, scientific writing style (which is what examinaers like to see). The introduction is good as it eases the reader into the topic area rather than throwing them straight into the middle of an argument (so, all this needs to do is give some general background information on the topic area – in this case: descriptions of the sensory, short term, and long term stores). The only criticism here is the quotes at the start – although these are relevant I’d suggest either leaving them out or integrating them into the main text (because it is not very conventional to put quotes alone at the start of an essay).

Level of analysis

Level of Analysis: The student gives a good variety of evidence both for (Rundus’s experiment, and influence on other theories) and against (evidence from Eysenck and Keane, and Tulving, too simple, conflicting theory from Craik and Lockhart, the study of KF, too mechanistic etc) the model. This creates a balanced argument which is good as it shows the reader that the student is not biased. To improve the analysis, I would suggest that the conclusion needs to follow the evidence given; the student stated that the model should be taken into consideration despite the majority of evidence described disputing it. Giving a conclusion that follows the evidence is important as it shows that the student understands the meaning of the evidence, and has not simply rote-learnt it.

Quality of writing

Quality of Writing: There are no problems in terms of spelling or grammar. The student is also successful in using technical terms that are expected at A Level. To add, when shortening terms to ‘STM’ and ‘LTM’ they make it clear what they are referring to.


Did you find this review helpful? Join our team of reviewers and help other students learn

Reviewed by danielle-dansmell 18/03/2012

Read less
Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Describe and evaluate the Multi-store Model of memory.

    3 star(s)

    is that the component we know least about, the central executive, is the most important. It has a limited capacity, but no one has been able to quantify it experimentally. Richardson, 1984 argues that there are problems in specifying the precise functioning of the central executive.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Psychology Revision Notes - list of major experiments

    3 star(s)

    a weapon. Loftus et al identified weapons focus effect. 2 conditions, one involving weapon the other not. Condition 1 (less violent) people was 49% accurate in identifying man. Condition 2 (more violent) people were 33% accurate. Suggests weapon may have distracted them.

  1. Discuss biological and psychological explanations of depression

    found no evidence to support this. Freud would also predict that depressed people should express anger and hostility mainly towards themselves. Another weakness is that actually, they express considerable anger and hostility towards those close to them (Weissman, Klerman, & Paykel, 1971). Another weakness is that the evidence for and against Freud's psychodynamic approach is inconsistent.

  2. effects of chunking and unchunking on short term memory

    All results were anonymous for confidentiality and participants gave consent to participate in the experiment. Participants 25 participants were used for this investigation, both male and female. The target population were 16-17year old students from Cherwell School.

  1. The effect of chunking on memory recall in STM.

    and recall the numbers in the correct order aloud after each one is read out. Procedure Each participant was sat down on a bench in an empty patio outside. This was the only available space to conduct my experiment where there were no other people.

  2. "An experiment to see the effect of chunking on short-term memory recall".

    place like in a real life situation, for example a person trying to remember a telephone number long enough from the phone book to call it one the phone. This was it would be more valid as it is a real life situation, however this would be hard to measure.

  1. Recall in Memory Using Mnemonics

    Demand Characteristics are reduced. The two independent groups used are the Experimental Group and the Control Group. The former will be taught the Mnemonic method of recalling information, whereas the left will be left to their own devices to recall the word list. There will be an interference task (duration 30 seconds)

  2. Memory: Rote Rehearsal and Mental Imagery.

    The imagery group recalled 80% of the pairs, whilst the other group only recalled 33%. This illustrated the influence of mental imagery on recall of material. This provides evidence to suggest that mental imagery helps in the encoding, storage and retrieval of information.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work