Experiment. Hypotheses: The higher the concentration of caffeine the higher the heart rate of the daphnia.
The effect of caffeine concentration on daphnia's heart rate Hypotheses: The higher the concentration of caffeine the higher the heart rate of the daphnia. Biological information: caffeine speeds heart rate, and circulation. Caffeine is a stimulant drug, which causes increased amounts of stimulatory neurotransmitters to be released. It belongs to a Group of chemicals called methylxanthines. Caffeine and similar compounds also inhibit a class of enzymes known as cyclic nucleotide Phosphodiesterases. These enzymes are, in part responsible for degrading a stimulatory signal produced when excitatory neurotransmitters activate different neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). When they are inhibited by caffeine, the stimulatory signal remains active for a longer period of time resulting in a greater sense of alertness (a CNS effect). Independent variable: concentration of caffeine 0- 0.5% Dependant variable: this is the heart rate (BPM) Controls: 0% caffeine to check that water alone does not have an effect on the heart rate compared to pond water. Other fixed/controlled variables: The temperature must always stay constant this means that it must be fixed at room temperature. This can be done by removing the light source from the microscope when not counting because it increases the temperature which leads to an increase in metabolism and therefore an increase in the
Examine the different functions performed by the family for individuals and for society
Examine the different functions performed by the family for individuals and for society. George Murdock is one of the main sociologists that look at the functionalist theory. He came up with the idea that there are 4 basic functions to a family. The first being the sexual function, the second being the reproductive function. Third is the economic function and lastly the educational function. He believed that these were the main functions of a family both for society and the individuals. Some of the functions that are performed by the family that help individuals are; the elders set an example/role model for the younger children and also it will give children a sense of belonging and support. Setting an example for the younger children is good for the child as an individual as it shows them the norms and values of life, so that when they are older they know the rights and wrongs to fit into society. Also the family gives the children a stable environment that they can learn and grow in this helps with knowing what it acceptable in society and what is dysfunctional. As well as giving something to the children as individuals it gives the adults the support that they may need for other things, these two things both give a sense of belonging to the family and to society. The family is good for society as it provides the next generation, as in the reproductive function, and it
ENC1101 Angela Fralick Essay #8 Argumentation According to Gore Vidal," It is easy to discuss what has gone wrong with us. It is not easy to discuss what should be done to correct what has gone wrong. It is absolutely impossible the in our public discourse to discuss why so much has gone wrong and, indeed, has been wrong with us since the very beginning of the country, even before that when our white tribes were living elsewhere."(Lowell Lecture-America First, America Last, America at Last) From Gore Vidal's perspective, America is bad, a land of "great unmentionable evil", a land of sky gods (monotheism) and religions that he feels are anti-human, such as Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. I believe that no country on this earth is perfect. Every country has its' flaws. Flaws do not begot evil. I feel that a homeless person on the street begging for food is not evil, nor a millionaire who has made great choices throughout his/her life is not evil. America is full of successful people, as well as middle class and the poor. Diversity does not make evil. "America;" as Dinesh D'Souza stated, "provides an amazingly good life for the ordinary guy."(10 Great Things) I believe that America is not evil. America is an amazing country, a country where anyone can become successful, where punishment is fair and just, and where people are free to choose his/her religion. I
How and why did the Tsarist regime survive the 1905 revolution?
How and why did the Tsarist regime survive the 1905 revolution? First of all to understand how the Tsarist regime survived in 1905 it is necessary to answer the question what happened in 1905. Then it is possible to see how the Tsar combated these problems. In the years before 1905 there was increasing social turmoil caused by rapid industrialisation: There was no legal way of expressing political views (no Parliament), there was a discontented and oppressed working class, and a desperate and poverty stricken peasantry. The middle classes were discontent because of the absence of a political voice for the vast population. The peasants were poor because they owned no land for themselves and of poor harvests and heavy taxing by the Tsar to pay for industrialisation. The working classes had to work in very poor working conditions, for very long hours and for very little pay. Therefore most sectors of Russian society were in opposition to the state. Only the gentry, the state-dependant industrialists and the army supported the regime. It is not surprising, therefore, that three illegal, political parties stemmed from the situation. One such party was the Social Democrats (1895), which followed the teachings of Marx, believing in a proletarian revolution. In 1903 the Social Democrats split into the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks. The Bolsheviks believing in a small well organised
To what extent to physiological factors explain why people become criminals?
To what extent to physiological factors explain why people become criminals? In this essay the extent to which physiological factors influence peoples behaviour, and primarily whether or not they will become criminals, will be discussed. This area is greatly influential within the nature/nurture debate, which is a core debate in psychology, as it looks at whether behaviour is influenced by genetics more than by the environment or whether it is the other way around. This essay will look at what effect different genetic influences can do to a person. It is also important to point out that the discussion will focus on physiological (or biological) factors of the body and not at mental aspects of the brain. It will look at issues including inherited characteristics and twins. The first item that would be looked at when discussing physiological factors is a persons genetic factors. The first person to look at why criminals are criminals was Lambroso (1876) and he thought the origins of criminality were gene based. Schafer (1976) credited Lombroso as the father of criminality as he was the first person to really look into the reasons for being a criminal. He thought that certain criminals could be identified by body shape and facial characteristics, for instance he thought that all sex offenders had big lips and protruding ears. He originally suggested that criminals were "born
“All My Sons”: Examine the Dramatic Power of Act 3.
Susan Martin 10KR 16th July 2001 "All My Sons": Examine the Dramatic Power of Act 3. "All My Sons" explores ideals. It argues the rights and wrongs of the American Dream. Arthur Miller plays a series of battles between the characters and in the audience's minds. The play considers trust, truth and blame and where the limits of a person's responsibility lie. As the play develops, so does the conflict over where to place the blame for the death of twenty-one service men. Once the truth is known Arthur Miller attacks the problem of responsibility. He delays revealing important information, keeping the audience interested, expecting more to come and forcing them to be more involved with the play. The play is made up of two parts. One is Chris's and Ann's attempt to persuade Kate that Larry is dead so that they can marry. Joe would like to support their wishes but recognises that he can not. The other part is the attempt by George and then by Chris to find out the truth about what happened in Joe's factory during the autumn of 1943. By the end of Act 3 both these narratives and all the conflicts have come together to reveal the mystery and create a climax. The focus is on the morality of Joe Keller, who places his narrow responsibility to his family above his wider responsibility to the men who rely on the integrity of his work. The most prominent dispute by
A comparison of the Opening Sequences in "The Others" and "the Sixth Sense", with a decision on which is the most effective and why?
Danielle Brown 10W 19/11/02 Mr. Saxton English A comparison of the Opening Sequences in "The Others" and "the Sixth Sense", with a decision on which is the most effective and why? The opening techniques for both of the films were completely different to each other. In "The Others", the beginning scene is very tense, where as in "The Sixth Sense", is light/happy and romantic, with two lovely couples celebrating. The producers use various methods to introduce the audience to the emotions of fear, suspense and hope. For example in "The Sixth Sense" music is very eerie, which therefore indicates to the audience that something ominous will happen. The music is played using a violin, which gave an appropriate sound that created a haunting eerie effect. In addition to this, dynamics and metallic sounds are used, sounding like It's coming from a tambourine, which conjure coldness and iciness. The diversity of dynamics including the loudness and softness brought a sense of confusion and panic. Also dynamics along with a pitch-black screen, in "The Sixth Sense" complimented each other to induce fear. Similarly with "The Others", eerie music is played using a violin and having dynamics at certain points, however no tambourines were present. Camera work is quite important in bringing across the message the director is communicating. For example like in "the Sixth Sense",
The cover of the jet black book was covered in thick dust, as if someone had left the book for years. As I wiped the dust of the book, the dust covered my hand and turned it black.
The book I walked through the gigantic two doors that led into the library. It was rather modern with computer on the left, and the book on the right. But right in the dark far end corner of the library were the book was kept, I walk towards there. As I walked further down the library, the smell of the air freshener was fading, the floor was much dirty and looked like it hasn't been hovered for some time. Then there it was in front of me, the book that every kid in the school feared of opening, the horror of the consceques it will give you, the apparently different world you will enter. It was on an ancient brown wooded book shelf that was just able to stand up. It had gold triangles on each corner of the book shelf. I gently took the fragile book of the shelf. The cover of the jet black book was covered in thick dust, as if someone had left the book for years. As I wiped the dust of the book, the dust covered my hand and turned it black. The book is extremely thick it must be the width of my arm at least. It's really heavy like a bucket full of water. The book looks very worn, the cover of it just readable saying "what really happens after death?" with the horrible scingfent picture of death, the grim reaper with a sort of blade in his right hand. As I held the book I kept thinking of the things people told me about it like "you'll never be seen again after reading a page
Dear Mr. Annan.
Micheal Gibson ` 10 Radford drive Braunstone Leicester LE3 3DR 15/01/2004 Bosworth Community College Leicester Lane Desford Leicestershire LE9 9JL Dear Mr. Annan I wish to complain about your recent decision to impose an embarrassing school uniform upon the students of Bosworth College, which is supposed to be a school where expression is encouraged. Yet imposing a school uniform will shatter the students self expression. As a student of the college I am shocked at the thought of being told what to wear. Isn't enough that we are told what to do, what not to do, where to go, and when to go, but making the students wear what they are told to will induce more people trying to revolt against the school. Yes I understand the arguments for a uniform: it reduces discrimination, gives students less things to worry about, it gives people a sense of unity and equality to the students. I also know that 83% of parents prefer uniform because it is smarter and cheaper then the designer clothes the students always want to wear, and is more suitable and sensible then the low cut, revealing clothes that the teenage girls want to wear and the over expensive clothes which have a brand name plastered over them all what the teenage lads want to wear all the time. The uniforms would make students look more organised especially to the teachers, and would give the students an
Investigation of the Effect of Bystander Behaviour on Helping Behaviour in a Non-Emergency Situation
Investigation of the Effect of Bystander Behaviour on Helping Behaviour in a Non-Emergency Situation Abstract One model explaining whether people offer assistance in emergency situations is diffusion of responsibility: the greater the number of bystanders present, the less personal responsibility is felt by each bystander. A second model, the normative theory, suggests that people comply with social norms, being more likely to help if an appropriate helping response is modelled by others. To investigate which model best accounts for helping behaviour, a naturalistic study was conducted in which participants were able to offer help in a minor emergency. The participants were 1122 undergraduates from Monash University. Most helping was demonstrated when no bystanders were present. The results supported the diffusion of responsibility theory more than the normative theory. In 1964, a New York city woman Kitty Genovese was brutally stabbed to death outside her apartment block. Of the 38 witnesses, none offered assistance, not even the simple act of notifying the police (Latane & Nida, 1981). This failure to help stimulated research into understanding why bystanders often fail to give assistance in emergency situations. Latane and Darley (1970) wondered why people were unwilling to offer assistance in emergencies when they were quite happy to help in non-emergencies. They