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GCSE: Northern Ireland 1965-85

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  1. Why Were British Troops Sent To Northern Ireland In August 1969?

    It was not just the civil right movements who were against discrimination so too were the Mps. Austin Currie was one of the Mps who decided to protest against discrimination. She decided to protest due to the fact 19-year-old women (Miss Emily Beattie a Secretary to the Ulster Unionist Party) was given more priority over housing rather than a catholic mother with children. Many Protestant were angry with the civil rights movements because they believed it was only looking out for Catholics without taking into consideration some protestant who were in working class position and faced numerous disadvantages.

    • Word count: 948
  2. How Did Protestant Politicians Explain The Social, Economic And political Differences Between Catholics And Protestants?

    For these reason politicians like Ian Paisley thought that Catholics could never be loyal to the government of Ulster and were in fact traitors. Politicians explained that Gerrymandering was simply done to stop the popish traitors from entering local councils where they would betray the people of Ulster by forging strong links with southern Ireland. It was also believed that if Catholics had a greater voice they would enact laws that would alienate protestant for example the in the south divorced was banned in 1925.

    • Word count: 770
  3. Should we believe the IRA has actually decommissioned its weapons

    There are many arguments as to whether or not we should believe that the IRA has truly puts its arms out of use but those two arguments are the primary opinions expressed by each party involved to put across their point. Unionists argue that they have no reason to believe an organisation that have spent thirty years to destroy their community and they have no reason to believe the word of terrorists and murderers when they say that they have destroyed everything.

    • Word count: 634
  4. Previous attempts to bring peace to Northern Ireland have failed. What problems will need to be overcome if the current peace talks are to succeed?

    This was to end the "Direct Rule" which was at existence and a new government would be set up. But this government would still be part of the United Kingdom, Britain would only accept if the parties from both communities took part in these peace talks. This was a breakthrough because both sides had agreed to sit down and discuss the matter. Three parties, the UUP, SDLP and Alliance Party, settled for a power-sharing executive to control Northern Ireland. There would be a council of Ireland, which would be made up of council ministers which both Irish governments would represent equally.

    • Word count: 861
  5. On 10th April 1998 the Good Friday agreement was signed

    This was an aspect of the agreement that was a key factor into the success of the agreement. It contained the fact that an assembly of people were constructed, an executive was formed and the transfer of powers took place. This was a great succession as far as the agreement was concerned and the people were pleased with the results, as the democratic parties were becoming more involved and it seemed like the problems in Northern Ireland were gradually being resolved. The aspect that pleased people from Northern Ireland was that they got the final say in the form of a ballet box.

    • Word count: 861
  6. Explain the changing methods of the IRA from 1972 to the Present day

    Lead to the forming of the Irish Republican Army. They wanted action through violence. After the subsequent partition of Ireland (a result of the rising) in 1921, the IRA began a bombing campaign, because as a result of Ireland partitioning, Catholics in Northern Ireland, now called Ulster were discriminated. The IRA was fuelled by hatred, so from 1956-62 the IRA began another violent bombing campaign in Ulster. But this gave them little support and their leaders were imprisoned, during this period the IRA strived for a 'United Ireland', but wanted to use force to obtain it.

    • Word count: 773
  7. What disadvantages did Catholics face in Northern Ireland in the mid 60's.

    A similar pattern of employment can be seen in Fermanagh County Council where 322 of 370 employees were Protestant, including most of those in the 'top' positions. Within the Education Authority, the most sought after jobs in Fermanagh were for school bus drivers because of the long rest and holidays; all but seven of these places out of 75 were given to Protestants. Such facts are made all the more astounding considering more than half of the population of Fermanagh County were actually Catholic.

    • Word count: 754
  8. Why is itdifficult to give an accurate picture of what happened on b****y Sunday?

    Father Bradley, a Catholic priest called the day a 'massacre'. Bradley, who witnessed the events, goes on to say 'I saw no one shooting at troops. If anyone had been, I would have seen it'. These contrasting opinions are the result of hundreds of years of violence, an opposition born of religious, racial and political difference. These differences cause a variation in the way the sides view the events. The Catholics see the day as a peaceful protest; the army say gunmen were asked to leave before the march.

    • Word count: 860
  9. Why did the Liberal Government take up the cause of Home Rule in the years 1911-1912?

    The Liberals favoured the Nationalists argument that the Irish Nationalist party clearly represented the views of the majority of the Irish people, the Liberals were encouraged that Redmond was willing to settle for Home Rule. They also admired the way he had worked within constitutional boundaries, as there had been a decrease in violence and that Home Rule was now considered to be a more practical proposition. Another argument that helped the Irish Nationalists persuade the Liberals to give them Home Rule was that British rule over Ireland had been disastrous.

    • Word count: 509
  10. Unionism and nationalism

    The Loyalist/Unionist main celebration takes place every eleventh evening and the twelfth day of July. This is because community celebrates King William's victory at the Battle of the Boyne. This celebration reinforces their Britishness and they claim also their religion. Another common belief that the Unionist and Loyalists share is that they do not place their trust in the British government. They know that the North of Ireland is a large drain on the British purse strings, and that this is probably the main reason why Britain would retreat from the North of Ireland for it to become a one nation Ireland, or as the Nationalists call it 'A United Ireland'.

    • Word count: 930
  11. If decommissioning is an obstacle to peace, then why doesn't the IRA decommission its arms?

    Decommissioning by the IRA would require a great deal of trust towards the British Government and the Unionists. The simply do not have any for either because of the years of violence and hatred. The IRA see it as if they decommission they would become very weak giving the opposition a great chance to attack or exploit them. They are not willing to take that risk. The IRA have no trust for the other side because the Roman Catholic's have always been treated as second class citizens, for example, The Ulster police force was made up of Protestants and would discriminate against the Catholics.

    • Word count: 698
  12. The Causes of the Famine (Ireland)

    He enjoyed no luxuries, nor did his family. In his day-to-day life he rarely, if ever, handled money. He had no means of buying food if his store of potatoes ran out. He was well accustomed to hunger and poverty. In his lifetime he had hardly known anything else. In the early decades of the 19th century there had been a population explosion in Ireland with the number of people rising from four million to eight million. Yet the amount of land available to them had not increased.

    • Word count: 579
  13. With What Success has the British Government Attempted to Deal with the 'Irish Troubles' since 1972.

    Power sharing failed as it was introduced to soon after one party rule. Strike action was growing increasingly common in the 1970's. This was known as the decade of strike as a lot of groups were taking this action. The second attempt was the Northern Ireland Assembly that was set up in 1982. This was another good idea but again the timing was wrong causing this attempt to fail. In 1982 Catholics refused to attend the assembly as in 1982 members of the IRA were being arrested and imprisoned without trial. They were angry and went on hunger strikes.

    • Word count: 844
  14. Why did the liberal government try and fail to give Home Rule to Ireland in the years 1920-1914?

    The Home Rule Bill of 1912, however, was not as far reaching as many think it could, or should have been. The Irish Nationalist party would have expected complete independence and separation but instead got a bill that was fundamentally the same as the bill Gladstone tried to introduce almost 20 years prior to this. In fact, some aspects of the 1912 bill were even more limiting that those in the 1893 bill. Liberals proposed giving the Irish government influence rather than powers.

    • Word count: 828
  15. How important was Henri IV's handling of the issue of religion in the establishment of a settled kingdom by 1598?

    Although two attempts to capture Paris from the Catholics proved unsuccessful and Henri saw that in order to seize what he wanted he had to adapt the politique style. A style that had progressed over the years, which Calvinists and Catholics had began to write about. It was a view that believed in the best interests of France and how stability could only be achieved by the presence of one power (the King) and co-operation with him. This was why, in 1593, Henri converted to Catholicism.

    • Word count: 977
  16. Why Were British Troops sent to Northern Ireland in August 1969?

    The RUC were sometimes violent towards Catholics because the unit was mainly made up of Protestant people. At Craigavon Bridge in October 1968, the first main display of RUC bias was displayed as they attacked the protesters who had gathered to petition against unequal rights. The protesters had been banned from entering the Londonderry city centre but they refused to give up as they marched into the area and were ridiculed by Protestant bystanders. Fights broke out from this and RUC Members were filmed beating the protesters. This was later shown on UK television at the horror of viewers.

    • Word count: 872
  17. How did protestant politicians explain the social, economic and political differences between Catholics and Protestants?

    People like Paisley also think that Catholics have loyalties elsewhere and that Catholics are completely untrustworthy. Both the Moderate and Extremist parties believe that there is a huge threat of insider help from Catholics to others and the Catholics making a Nationalist foothold in Northern Ireland. Something else was that the Protestants saw that the Civil Rights protests always seemed to favour the catholic end of the line which made the Protestants resentful and angry, this pushed them to try and stop the protests and began to ignore them, this angered the Catholics very much and they began using violent

    • Word count: 625
  18. b****y Sunday.

    Cooper urged to call a march and keep the 'movement' up. It protested against the wrongful internment of the Irish citizens. They wanted radical change within the government and an end to certain domination. A young lad and his friends joined the march becoming somewhat violent towards the British troops nearer the end. He ended up getting shot and dying. Ivan Cooper heard of the fact that tension and problems could arise if they marched in their intended route so he offered to re-route.

    • Word count: 528
  19. Why does sectarian conflict like that seen at the Holy Cross Primary School in the Ardoyne, North Belfast in October 2001 still happen, when Northern Ireland is meant to be going through a peace process?

    There are few more obvious signs of sectarian division than the scene that greets you at Ardoyne Road, north Belfast. Irish tricolours fly from lampposts starting at the southern end of the road. A few yards past an invisible border at Alliance Avenue, the green is replaced by the orange and loyalist flags flutter in the breeze. Ardoyne, an "interface" area where Protestant and a much larger Catholic communities live cheek by jowl, has witnessed some of the worst violence of the Troubles: Mass movements of people, open street fighting, clashes with security forces, shootings and intimidation.

    • Word count: 551
  20. Northern Ireland - What are the main differences between the beliefs of the Republicans/Nationalists and the Loyalists/Unionists?

    There are various violent and peaceful political parties within the Nationalist and the Unionists parties which highlights some of their main differences. To begin with, there are clear different strands within the political parties, for example: Nationalists * Irish Republican Army (IRA) * Sinn Fein * Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) Unionists * The Ulster Defence Association and the Ulster Volunteer Force (UDA/UVF) * The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) * The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) * The Orange Order For the purpose of this paper I will focus on the differences between the parties, which concentrate on their use of violence and their opposing religious doctrines.

    • Word count: 912
  21. Northern Ireland - What are the main differences between the beliefs of the Republicans/Nationalists and the Loyalists/Unionists?

    There are some Unionist parties who also use violence in order to get there point a cross these are the Ulster Defence Association and the Ulster Volunteer Force these are illegal groups which were created to fight the IRA they have been responsible for the murder of many Catholics. The Unionist parties which do not use violence are the Ulster Defence Party, Democratic Unionist Party and the Orange Order.

    • Word count: 544
  22. What Was the effect of the Great Famine on Ireland?

    With the total population being around 8 million at the start of 1845 to around 5 million by 1849. Some died of starvation but many who could emigrated. They left with a feeling of anger and hatred and bitterness towards the English. They emigrated to various parts of the world but most went across the Atlantic to the USA and Canada. This feeling of resentment stayed with them in there new homes (especially in the USA) and would continue there hatred of the English and would later help to fund the Irish nationalists. In Ireland there was also a greater feeling of hatred towards the English among the general populous.

    • Word count: 560
  23. Choose 2 events from the last 200 years which have helped shape the views of the nationalists and the unionists.

    It created a divide in the population and each side despised each other. This meant that they were unlikely to reach an agreement with each other. The native Irish and the settlers were separated by language, religion and political views. There were also big economic differences between them. The settlers (Unionists/Protestants) held more of the land and power than the Nationalists. They could pay smaller amounts to rent the land than the Nationalists and could also get the good pieces of land, leaving the native Irish small pieces of marshland. This helps shape views of the Protestants and Catholics today.

    • Word count: 895
  24. The battle of the Somme.

    So on the 24th June 1916 the battle began. More than 1.7 million shells were fired, many were duds and because of this the gun crews were out under a lot of pressure and the 4.5 howitzer crew even called themselves 'The Suicide Club' The Ulstermen were to attack a 300 yards front and their target was known as the Schwaben Redoubt. It was a network of trenches, dugouts and machine gun posts which lay south of the Ancre River.

    • Word count: 684
  25. It has been difficult to implement the Good Friday Agreement because of many different issues a few of these are differing aspirations, sectarianism and security.

    This year differing aspirations ahs become a worrying problem because of the recent election where we saw the middle ground political groups have been defeated by the more extreme groups the DUP and Sinn Fein, this is worrying because they may not agree on anything, meaning that we might not get any further with the Good Friday Agreement. Sectarianism is also a big problem; these are problems such as the Holy Cross dispute which is as much to do with politics as it has to do with religion.

    • Word count: 875

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