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GCSE: Northern Ireland 1965-85
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The Police even led the Catholic marchers into a trap, here they were met by violent Protestant Unionists, the outcome was inevitable, violence. The 'B-Specials' were created - this was a unit within the police that were 99.9% Protestant. They were called in by the Unionists, to act like a police force/army. These too were violent to the Catholics, Catholic marches were banned. Student demonstrations ended up in violence. This angered the Catholics, they felt that if the Protestants should get to march they why shouldn't they.
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A million people died in the potato famine of either starvation of hunger related diseases. The British Government refused to give food to the poor Irish, they would only sell it, few Irish tenants ever had money. Irish tenants were unable to pay their rent to their landlords, so they were evicted. Many were forced to leave Ireland and went to America or England. Nearly 4 million people left Ireland between 1845 and 1900. The Catholics thought that the British Government had deliberately allowed the famine and emigration to continue. The republican Michael Davitt formed the land league in 1879 and this league used violence to make landlords give fair rents and give loans to their tenants to buy land.
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Unionism is a movement that is opposed to a united Ireland and supports the union with Britain instead. They believe that the political union with Britain has economical benefit to Ireland and that if there was a united Ireland, Protestants would be discriminated against. Unionist parties include 'Ulster Unionist Party', 'Democratic Unionist Party' and 'Orange Order Party'. They believe in the means of peaceful protest and therefore are involved in discussions, debates, non violent movements and marches. The Orange Order Party had close links the UUP and is an association that had the aims to defend Protestants and the constitution.
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Beliefs of Loyalists/Unionists Like Scotland and Wales, Northern Ireland is part of the UK. About, 2/3 of the people that live here are Protestant Unionists. The term Loyalist is used to describe the group because they are loyal to Britain and the monarchy. They also believe that being part of Britain is good for the economy of Northern Ireland. The most outspoken leader for Unionists in Northern Ireland is Ian Paisley. He is the leader of the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP). He wants Northern Ireland to remain part of Britain and for it to be governed by Britain.
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The Unionists had also learnt that by striking they could get thier way. The next noticeable attempt was the Anglo-Irish Agreement of 1985-86. The possibility of a devoloved Government including Rep. Of Ire representatives was suggested and it was agreed that Britain and the Rep of Ire should jointly decide on the future of Northern Ireland. Again, this attempt at settling the problems failed because the Unionists felt the Rep of Ire shouldnt be involved in their future whereas Sinn Fein and the IRA wanted a full republic. Fourteen out of fifteen councillors resigned from the UUC and re-elected themselves as anti the Aglo Irish Agreement.
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how did protestant politicians explain social economic and political differences between catholics and protestants
Politicians blamed that the differences between Catholics and Protestants had been brought about by some historical events such as the plantation schemes, Cromwell's invasion, the Battle of Boyne and the great famine to show how cruel and unjust Catholics were; The Protestants also proved that Catholics were "lazy and untrustworthy traitors who would use terrorism to achieve a united Ireland".
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were told to attack anyone who defied the ban on demonstrations with batons... And so after riots started braking out on the 14th of August 1969 British troops were sent into Northern Ireland. Catholic population had recently begun a civil rights movement to try getting the world to notice that they were being treated unfairly. During the Craigavon Bridge incident in October 1968, the Catholic marchers approaching the bridge where confronted by the RUC by pushing the marchers back with water cannons and assaulting them... After the Burntollet Bridge incident in January 1969 where RUC officers made little attempt to protect the marchers against loyalist mobs, 80 people's Democracy marchers were taken away.
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After the actual partition of Ireland in 1922 a parliament in Northern Ireland was established. It had power over education, housing, local elections and policing. This made some citizens believe that Northern Ireland was a one party state and undemocratic because in this government most ministers were Protestant who gave some benefits to the Protestant districts making the Catholics annoyed. The problem was that changing the government was nearly impossible through voting; Housing allocation affected the voting system as homeowners and tenants had more votes than other people (like most Catholics)
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In 20th Century Northern Ireland, there are three main events that take place they are the Easter Rising, Deployment of British Troops and b****y Sunday.
On 30th January Connelly's citizen army members and the IRB went out and occupied parts of central Dublin. Pearce then proclaimed that the Irish republic was now established Although the Easter Rising only lasted for one week it had a lot of short term and long term consequences. One of the most significant long term consequences was that the rebel leaders were executed, this led to more hatred and distrust between the Catholics and protestants and could of led to a civil war. British people also hated the Irish as they couldn't believe that they were fighting with each other when there was a world war going on.
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With what success has the British Government tried to deal with the Irish 'troubles' in the years since 1972?
The British aim behind power sharing was to reduce the support for the IRA by giving Catholics a say in how Northern Ireland was run. The unionists disliked this idea as they felt the link between London, Belfast, and Dublin would bring a united Ireland. They also felt betrayed by Britain. In the long term power sharing failed as it was linked to the Sunningdale agreement however there was political success as the main parties sat at the 'table' together and stated to discuss their ideas.
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The events that occurred on 30th January 1972 became known as "b****y Sunday". Why have these events produced such different historical interpretations?
Since the British Troops had entered Northern Ireland their initial welcome had changed to resentment. Nationalist groups such as the IRA and Sinn Fein emerged; this increase in paramilitary action posed as a threat to the troops and to Britain. On the day thousands congregated for the march and continued moving until blocked by a British roadblock. The aggravation between the two sides grew: at one point a group of young men managed to break the barrier. Rocks were thrown at troops and the paratroopers used a water cannon and rubber bullets to disperse the crowd.
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In this case the female is representing Erin (Ireland) and the male is representing a catholic priest. This is a cartoon of propaganda because it was drawn by a protestant and in the nineteenth century which shows that Roman Catholics and Protestants did not get along with each other for about 100 - 150 years before. It also shows (implies) That the catholic religion is entrapping Ireland and shouting and telling Ireland off and making Ireland suffer. This source has some value but combined with source D it becomes more useful.
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Marches followed this protest to emphasize their support, the first of which proved to be peaceful, however the following march led to violence. The Londonderry march was banned by N.Ireland's Home Affairs Minister William, using the Special Powers Act. However, this didn't deter the marchers, it infact did the opposite and made the demonstrators more determined to enter the cities main square. Quiet visibly the marcher's route became blocked by RUC officers, and it was now only a matter of time before violent scenes broke out, that night TV stations across the state showed the RUC officers using water cannon to keep the marchers away.
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How accurate is it to say that the main cause of this ill feeling and suspicion between the two groups dates back only to Partition in 1920?
However for the few Protestants or Catholics left in each others rule their time was extremely hard. Protestants introduced 'The Special Powers Act.' This was a discrimination act against Catholics saying that they couldn't have the best jobs or they couldn't have good land. Whilst the Protestants received the good land for the same price as the Catholics had to pay for the poor land. All of this led to discrimination between the two religions led to the civil rights movement. This occurred because the Catholics got tired of being discriminated. The rights included the same treatment to be given to all religions, race or background.
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How far are the tensions in Northern Ireland due the events f 30th January 1972 and how far are they due t historical events before 1972
b****y Sunday was a Nationalist protest on the 30th January 1972. British Soldiers shot dead 13 Nationalists. It resulted in the impression that the British were prepared to use violence to defend the Unionists of Northern Ireland. This led up to more conflict and attacks on not only Unionists in Northern Ireland, but the British in England as well. Examples of this were the Brighton Bombing in 1984, and the Harrods b**b and assassination of Lord Mountbatten in 1979. The IRA took full responsibility for these terrorist attacks. The tensions in Northern Ireland still exist today, as do the violent campaigns of paramilitary organisations.
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to what extent was Ireland moving toward an Irish Ireland rather than a British Ireland towards the early 1900-discuss
'Agitation for an amnesty for fenian prisoners and outrage at the execution of the Manchester martyrs,(Larkin,O Brien,O Meara-Allen) mobilized nationalist opinion the fenian movement could never have achieved alone, it provided the basis for the launch of the home rule movement. In addition William Ewart Gladstone would introduce reform which would culminate in his conversion to home rule.' William Ewart Gladstone (1809-98) was leader of the liberal party and British prime minister (1868-74) He introduced change into Ireland and declared during his political career that his 'chief political interest was to pacify Ireland' (4)On 26 July 1869 despite fierce opposition from the Queen and other members of parliament he disestablished the Anglican church in Ireland; Having been satisfied
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Visualisation that employment amongst Protestants would drop significantly, throughout the Island. Two options remained open to protestant landowners. The IPLU had close contacts in British politics.Members could use their influence to encourage their parliamentary friends at Westminster to stand firm in the face of nationalist pressure for home rule. The second opportunity would arise if the British were convinced there were possibilities of electoral votes. In the 1880s William Ewart Gladstone, prime-minister and leader of the liberals joined the forces of home rule.
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This meant the Catholics were unemployed and could not look after their Children. They were sent to the worst schools which didn't teach them anything about Catholicism. They lived in the run down areas, and many Children died from malnutrition because of poor diets. The Catholics were hugely influenced by Martin Luther King and the American Civil Rights Act, which were going on at about the same time. In 1968 a Civil Rights movement came forward to protest against discrimination, often starting violent reactions from the Protestant Community. Trouble began when the annual March of supporters of William of Orange began, the police were forced to use tear gas, for the first time in history, to try and bring the violence and rioting back under control.
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What are the main differences between the beliefs of the Republicans or Nationalists and the Loyalists
Unfortunately, many citizens of the Republic of Ireland were against the island being divided, and set up groups, many of which were illegal, to try to combat and reverse this split. However, this resulted in more groups being set up, which opposed these. Groups wanting Ireland to be united are known as Republicans or Nationalists, while those wanting Northern Ireland to remain independent are known as Loyalists or Unionists. Republicans or Nationalists are generally Catholic and see themselves as Irish rather than British.
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This is a long term cause of the conflict because today's Catholics feel that their ancestors land was unfairly taken from them. From 1600, when kind Henry the second first conquered Ireland, gradually, England's protestant rulers conquered the whole of Ireland because as the Catholics had been penalised and had no weapons they could not fight back to defend their country from conquest. Oppression against Irish Catholics continued when in 1801, Ireland's parliament was closed down and Ireland was forced into the act of union against its wishes and was ruled by London.
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These were called the penal laws, and were as follows: � Catholics could not bear arms; � Catholic children could not be educated; � Catholics could not own a horse valued above �5; � Catholic Archbishops and Bishops had to leave Ireland; � Priests were not replaced when they died; � Catholics could not buy property; � On the death of the owner, catholic estates ad to be divided equally between the sons (although if a son became a Protestant he would obtain all the land); � Catholics could not have leases on land for over 32 years; � No Catholics could be lawyers, army officers of public officials; � Catholics could not vote or be MPs.
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The Northern Ireland government introduced internment in attempt to curb the increasing violence. This meant that anyone suspected of terrorism would be arrested and put in prison without the need for a trial. It was intended to work against all terrorists and not just the IRA although most were Catholic. This backfired, the information that was used for the arrests was out of date and none of the current IRA leaders were arrested. Now rumours of torture from these arrests also circulated and fuelled Catholic anger, as civil rights were being abused. All these factors led to the events of b****y Sunday.
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Why were British troops sent into Northern Ireland in 1969? (15 Marks) There has been a history of violence between Catholics and Protestants over
In 1602 the English Queen Elizabeth 1st brought Ireland under English control. But was succeeded by James 1st in 1603 and to keep control of Ireland he began the 'Plantation' of Ulster. This involved planting Protestants from England and Scotland, loyal to the English crown to Catholics lands where people were opponents to the crown. A rebellion broke out in Ulster in 1641, killing many Protestants. Irish rebels controlled fro 1642-49 as England were distracted by the English civil war.
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